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Level 1

C1.1 Fundamental Ideas


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Atom
The smallest part of an element that can still be recognised as that element.
Solid
A state of matter in which the particles have fixed positions.
Gas
A state of matter in which particles can move independently of one another.
Periodic table
An arrangement of elements in the order of their atomic numbers, forming groups and periods.
Group
All the elements in each column(Labelled 1 to 7 and 0) down the periodic table.
Nucleus
the very small and dense central part of an atom which comntains protons and neutrons.
Compound
A substance made when two or more elements are chemically bonded together. For example, water made from hydrogen and oxygen.
Electron
A tiny particle with a negative charge. They orbit the nucleus in atoms or ions
Proton
A tiny positive particle found in the nucleus of an atom.
Neutron
A particle found in the nucleus of an atom. It is electrically neutral, carrying no charge.
Atomic number
The number of protons(which equals the number of electrons) in an atom. It is sometimes called the proton number.
Mass number
The number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Shells
An area in an atom, around its nucleus, where the electrons are found.
Energy level
Another term for electron shell.
Electronic structure
A set of numbers to show the arrangement of electrons in their shells(or energy levels), for example, the electronic structure of Potasium ion is 2,8,8,1.
Alkali metals
The elements in group 1 of the periodic table for example. Lithium(Li), Sodium(Na), Potasium(K).
Ionic bonds
The electrostatic force of attraction between positively and negatively charged ions.
Reactant
A substance we start with before a chemical reaction takes place.
Product
A substance made as a result of a chemical reaction.
Symbol equation
A balanced chemical equation showing the formula of each reactant and product in the reaction.