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spigot
A device used to control the flow of liquid from something such as a barrel.
topple
To (cause to) lose balance and fall down.
untenable
impossible to continue because of serious problems, opposition, or criticism
endorse
To make a public statement of your approval or support for something or someone.
swathe
A long strip or large area especially of land.
tar
A black substance, sticky when hot, used especially for making roads.
bristle at something
to show sudden anger or other negative response to something. (Alludes to a dog or cat raising the hair on its back in anger or as a threat.)
crop up
to appear without warning; to happen suddenly; [for something] to begin to reveal itself in the open. Some new problems cropped up at the last minute.
paramount
More important than anything else.
automaton
A machine that operates on its own without the need for human control, or a person who acts like a machine, without thinking or feeling.
accustomed
Familiar with something; usual.
attuned
familiar with something and able to deal with it in a sensitive way
bailout
money that someone gives or lends to a person or organization with financial problems
beholden
Feeling you have a duty to someone because they have done something for you.
birch
A tree with a smooth, often white bark (= outer covering) and thin branches.
brunt
The main force of something unpleasant.
commemorate
To remember officially and give respect to a great person or event, especially by a public ceremony or by making a statue or special building.
conclusive
Proving that something is true, or ending any doubt.
cultivate
To prepare land and grow crops on it, or to grow a particular crop.
custard
A sweet sauce made from eggs, milk, and sugar and poured over sweet dishes.
distraught
Extremely worried, nervous, or upset.
glare
A long angry look.
incumbent
Officially having the named position.
nautical
Relating to ships, sailing, or sailors.
prolonged
Continuing for a long time.
rote
the process of learning something by repeating it many times rather than by understanding it
saturate
To make something or someone completely wet.
slick
Operating or performing skilfully and effectively, without problems and without seeming to need effort.
spade
A tool used for digging especially soil or sand, with a long handle and a flat blade.
spur
To encourage an activity or development or make it happen faster.
stellar
Of a star or stars.
teeter
To appear to be about to fall while moving or standing.
uproot
To pull a plant including its roots out of the ground.
rigorous
Careful to look at or consider every part of something to make certain it is correct or safe.
subvert
To try to destroy or damage something, especially an established political system.
coil
a long thin piece of something that forms rings or curls
constrict
To become tighter and narrower, or to make something become tighter and narrower.
suffocate
To (cause someone to) die because they do not have enough oxygen.
affluent
Having a lot of money or owning a lot of things.
sedentary
Involving little exercise or physical activity.
societal
Relating to or involving society.
succinct
Said in a clear and short way; expressing what needs to be said without unnecessary words.
denote
To represent something.
plethora
A very large amount of something, especially a larger amount than you need, want, or can deal with.
consecutive
Describes events, numbers, etc. that follow one after another without an interruption.
maritime
Connected with human activity at sea.
whip
A piece of leather or rope that is fastened to a stick, used for hitting animals or people.
gatecrash
To go to a party or other event when you have not been invited.
oak
A large tree that is common in northern countries, or the hard wood of this tree.
aggravate
To make a bad situation worse.
akin
Having some of the same qualities.
bankrupt
a person or business that is bankrupt has officially admitted that they have no money and cannot pay what they owe
claimant
A person who asks for something that they believe belongs to them or that they have a right to.
culprit
Someone who has done something wrong.
dale
A valley.
dispatch
To send something, especially goods or a message, somewhere for a particular purpose.
devise
To invent a plan, system, object, etc., usually cleverly or using imagination.
dismantle
To take a machine apart or to come apart into separate pieces.
divert
To cause something or someone to change direction.
exemplary
Very good and suitable to be copied by other people.
fraudster
Someone who gets money by deceiving people.
gimmick
something that is intended to impress and interest you but is really not at all useful
levy
An amount of money, such as a tax, that you have to pay to a government or organization.
loophole
something that has been left out of a law or legal document that people can use to avoid obeying it
maize
a tall plant that produces yellow seeds that are called sweetcorn when cooked and eaten. The American word is corn.
manure
Solid waste from animals, especially horses, that is spread on the land in order to make plants grow well.
merit
The quality of being good and deserving praise.
mire
an area of soft wet ground
oblige
To force someone to do something, or to make it necessary for someone to do something.
overhaul
To repair or improve something so that every part of it works as it should.
prosecute
to officially accuse someone of a crime and ask a court of law to judge them
reprisal
(an example of) activity against another person, especially as a punishment by military forces or a political group.
scour
To remove dirt from something by rubbing it hard with something rough; to search a place or document thoroughly for something
staple
A principal raw material or commodity grown or produced in a region; Produced or stocked in large quantities to meet steady demand
wear thin
if your patience wears thin, you become less and less patient (often in continuous tenses); if a joke, an excuse, or an explanation wears thin, it becomes less effective because it has been used too much (often in continuous tenses)
supreme
Having the highest rank, level, or importance.
irrigate
To supply land with water so that crops and plants will grow.
constituency
One of the official areas of a country that elects someone to represent it in a parliament .
decry
To criticize something as bad, without value or unnecessary.
devolve
To (cause power or responsibility to) be given to other people.
equate
To consider one thing to be the same as or equal to another thing.
placard
A large piece of card, paper, etc. with a message written or printed on it, often carried in public places by people who are complaining about something.
rollout
the introduction of a new product, especially when it gradually becomes available in a large number of places
sturgeon
a large fish that lives in northern seas, rivers, and lakes, and whose eggs are eaten as caviar
stool
A seat without any support for the back or arms.
abreast
Describes two or more people who are next to each other and moving in the same direction.
bespoke
Specially made for a particular person.
bulletin
a short news broadcast
cavalry
The group of soldiers in an army who fight in tanks, or (especially in the past) on horses.
congenital
Describes a disease or condition that exists at or from birth.
dreary
Boring and making you feel unhappy.
facet
One part of a subject, situation, etc. that has many parts.
intrusive
interrupting a peaceful situation
lurch
to move suddenly in a way that is not smooth or controlled
negligible
very unimportant or small
obstruct
To block a road, passage, entrance, etc. so that nothing can go along it, or to prevent something from happening correctly by putting difficulties in its way.
purport
To pretend to be or to do something, especially in a way that is not easy to believe.
quantify
To measure or judge the size or amount of something.
recourse
Using something or someone as a way of getting help, especially in a difficult or dangerous situation.
shortfall
An amount that is less than the level that was expected or needed.