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READING + LISTENING - June 11th 2014


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textile
n.[1].any type of woven cloth that is made in large quantities, used especially by people in the business of making clothes..... exp: their main exports are ~s....[2]. the industry involved in making cloth.
waterwheel
n. a large wheel that is turned by water and is used to drive machinery
sweatshop
n. a small business, factory, where people work hard in bad conditions for very little money ( use in disapproval)
yarn
n.[1] thick thread made of cotton or wool, which is used to knit things.... [2].(informal) a story of adventures, travels, usually made more exciting and interesting by adding things that never really happened.
consistent
adj. [1](OPP in~) always behaving in the same way or having the same attitudes, standards, usually used to show approval... exp: we need to be ~ in our approach....[2]. continuing to happen or develop in the same way...exp: a ~ improvement in the country's economy....[3]. a ~ argument or idea does not have any parts that do not match other parts... exp: the evidence is not ~.
scale
n. [1]. size/level ... exp: we had underestimated the ~ of the problem.....[2].range..... exp: she gradually made her way up the social ~....
machinery
n.[1] machines, especially large ones....exp: a piece of ~...[2].(~ for (doing st) a system or set of processes for doing something.... exp: the ~ of government....[3]. the parts inside a machine that make it work.... exp: be careful not to get anything caught in the ~.
mill
n.[1] a building containing a large machine for crushing grain into flour...[2] a factory that produces materials such as cotton, cloth, or steel...[3]"go through the ~" to go through a time when you experience a lot of difficulties and problems.... exp: He's really been through the ~ recently....[4] "put some body through the ~" to make someone answer a lot of difficult questions or do a lot of difficult things in order to test them.... exp: It was a three-day course and they really put us through the ~
notably
adv. [1] used for giving a good or the most important example of sth Synonym: ESPECIALLY. [2]to a great degree Synonym: REMARKABLY.
reputation
n.(+for/as) the opinion that people have about someone or something because of what has happened in the past....exp: JK has a ~ for being strict but fair.
exploit
v. to treat someone unfairly by asking them to do things for you, but giving them very little in return.....exp: homeworkers can easily be exploited by employers.
boisterous
adj. (of people, animals or behaviour) noisy and full of life and energy.
indulge
v. in sth to take part in an activity, especially one that is illegal.
rational
adj. [1](OPP ir~) ~ thoughts, decisions are based on reasons rather than emotions....exp: I'm sure there's a ~ explanation for all this... [2](OPP ir~) a ~ person is able to think calmly and sensibly...exp: Culley was quite ~ at the time of her baby's death....[3](formal)able to make sensible judgments...exp:Man is a ~ animal.
proviso
n. a condition that must be accepted before an agreement can be made.
commit
v. [VN] ~ a crime, etc. to do sth wrong or illegal
suspect
n.[1](+for/in) someone who is thought to be guilty of a crime....exp: two ~s were arrested today in connection with the robbey....[2]."the usual ~s" the people or things that are usually involved in or responsible for a particular activity....exp: a wine shop stocking all the usual ~s: wines from France,australia.
interpretation
n. [1]the particular way in which sth is understood or explained. [2] the particular way in which sb chooses to perform a piece of music, a role in a play, etc.
legislation
n.(+on/to do st)(introduce/bring in~)(under new/existing/current ... +~) a law or set of laws....exp: this is a very important piece of legislation
magistrate
n. an official who acts as a judge in the lowest courts of law: a ~'s court .
defendant
n. the person in a court of law who is accused of committing a crime, or who is being sued by another person.
subjective
adj.[1](OPP objective)( +judgment/opinion) statement, report, attitude that is ~ is influenced by personal opinion and can therefore be unfair....exp: as a critic, he is far too ~.....[2](OPP objective) existing only in your mind or imagination....exp: our ~ perception of colours....[3] relating to the subject in grammar..... exp: his work was judged objectively as well as ~ly
welfare
n. [1] the general health, happiness and safety of a person, an animal or a group Synonym: WELL-BEING. [2] practical or financial help that is provided, often by the government, for people or animals that need it. [3](especially AmE) = SOCIAL SECURITY.
cast
v."~ light on/onto st" to provide new information about st, making it easier to understand... exp: research findings that cast new light on the origin of our universe.....[2]"~ doubt(s) on something" to make people fell less certain about st... exp: her documentary casts serious doubt on G's conviction
victimize
v. [often passive] to make sb suffer unfairly because you do not like them, their opinions, or sth that they have done: For years the family had been ~d by racist neighbours.
discriminate
v. [1] ~ (between A and B) ~ A from B to recognize that there is a difference between people or things; to show a difference between people or things. [2]~ (against sb) ~ (in favour of sb) to treat one person or group worse/better than another in an unfair way.
abusive
adj.using cruel words or physical violence....exp: S denies using abusive language to the referee.
enact
v. [often passive] (law) to pass a law.
sanction
n. [1](~s +against(SYN embargo) official orders or laws stopping trade, communication with another country, as a way of forcing its leaders to make political changes....exp: US sanctions against Cuba.....[2](formal)(SYN approval) official permission, approval, or acceptance ...exp: apparently, the aide had acted without WH sanction.....[3](formal)(SYN punishment) a form of punishment that can be used if someone disobeys a rule or law....... exp: the harshest possible sanction which could be imposed.
abuse
v. to make bad use of sth, or to use so much of sth that it harms your health.
witness
n.[1](~ to the accident/robbery/...) someone who sees a crime or an accident and can describe what happened.... exp: Police have appealed for ~es to come forward...[2](key/star/principal ~) someone who appears in a court of law to say what they know about a crime or other event.... exp: the key ~ in the case against the brothers
impediment
n. [1]~ (to sth) something that delays or stops the progress of sth Synonym: OBSTACLE. [2]a physical problem that makes it difficult to speak normally: a speech ~
magistrate
n.(SYN Justice of the Peace) someone, not usually a lawyer, who works as a judge in a local court of law, dealing with less serious crimes
jury
n. a group of members of the public who listen to the facts of a case in a court of law and decide whether or not sb is guilty of a crime.
harmony
n. [C, U] a pleasing combination of related things.
battering
n. [U, sing.] a violent attack that injures or damages sb/sth.
wipe out
v. to destroy, remove, or get rid of something completely.
notion
n. ~ (that ...) ~ (of sth) an idea, a belief or an understanding of sth.
sloth
n. [1] [C] a S American animal that lives in trees and moves very slowly [2] [U] (formal) the bad habit of being lazy and unwilling to work.
merit
n. [1] [U] (formal) the quality of being good and of deserving praise, reward or admiration: a work of outstanding artistic ~. [2] [C, usually pl.] a good feature that deserves praise, reward or admiration: We will consider each case on its (own) ~s
guzzle
v. (informal, usually disapproving) to drink sth quickly and in large amounts. In British English it also means to eat food quickly and in large amounts.
churn out
v. to produce large quantities of something, especially without caring about quality.
mess with sb
v. to treat someone in a bad, rude, or annoying way, or to start an argument with someone:...exp:I've warned you already, don't mess with me!
fetch
v. (especially BrE) to go to where sb/sth is and bring them/it back....exp:Quick! Go and ~ a doctor.
halt
v. to stop; to make sb/sth stop.
descent
v. [C, usually sing.] an action of coming or going down.
primitive
adj. [usually before noun] belonging to a very simple society with no industry, etc.
propose
v. (formal) to suggest a plan, an idea, etc. for people to think about and decide on.
weed out
v. to get rid of people or things that are not very good.
on the contrary, quite the contrary
phr. used to add to a negative statement, to disagree with a negative statement by someone else, or to answer no to a question.
suspect
v. to have an idea that sth is probably true or likely to happen, especially sth bad, but without having definite proof.
drill
v. to make a hole in sth, using a drill.
bubble
n. a ball of air or gas in a liquid, or a ball of air inside a solid substance such as glass.
interglacial
n. a warm period between glacial epochs.
pattern
n. the regular way in which sth happens or is done.
coincide
v. (of two or more events) to take place at the same time.
periodic
adj. [usually before noun] happening fairly often and regularly.
axis
n. an imaginary line through the centre of an object, around which the object turns.
hemisphere
n. one half of the earth, especially the half above or below the EQUATOR.
tropical
adj. coming from, found in or typical of the tropics (nhiệt đới).
thaw
v. ~ (out) (of ice and snow) to turn back into water after being frozen.
emission
n. (formal) the production or sending out of light, heat, gas, etc.
liberate
v. [1] ~ sb/sth (from sb/sth) to free a country or a person from the control of sb else. [2] ~ sb (from sth) to free sb from sth that restricts their enjoyment of life.
instance
n. a particular example or case of sth. IDIOMS: for ~/ for example.
paddy
n. (also paddy field) a field in which rice is grown.