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H10 - Psychology of conflict


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cooperate within organisations.
To achieve goals, it is required to
When they feel identified with the organisation they work for and when they have trust in the organisation and their employer.
When do employees cooperate more?
giving and taking. In one situation, the employee must give information, while the same person receives information in another situation.
Cooperation starts with
asking for help from others.
Most people feel uneasy when
we rather look for other possibilities than seek for help.
When there is the chance of our request being rejected,
the (social) consequences.
It is important for us to correctly predict if our request for help will be answered or not, because of
calculate the effort the helpers have to put in when they say yes.
Unfortunately, we are not that good in predicting the willingness to help. Most of the time we underestimate this. The main reason for this is we
social costs for the potential helper when this helper says no.
Also, the person that asks for help does not calculate the
do not calculate the required effort when they decide to help or not, which is contrary to the thought process of help seekers.
Research shows the people who are asked for help are much more willing to do so when asked directly (because it is socially awkward to say no) and
not enough to get people to ask help when needed.
Studies show the prediction people make of how much people seek their help does not get better by experience. This shows an open-door-policy some organisational leaders handle, most of the time is
the social costs were lower, compared to when they got instrumental benefits. Results also showed help givers predicted this to be the exact other way around.
The potential social costs are the biggest problem. To solve this, research was conducted to see if people where encouraged to ask help and promised there would not be a social burden, they would actually seek help more. Results show people are more willing to seek help when
ambivalent emotions.
Another problem people encounter, is giving gifts. When is the gift enough, when is it too little, when is it too much? This can cause
show gratitude and recognition. This can strengthen the social bond between the giver and the receiver.
Anthropologists state giving gifts is meant to
the more the feeling of appreciation will be transferred to the gift receiver.
The authors claim people who give gifts take the price in consideration: the more expensive,
they do not feel the degree of appreciation depends on the gift price.
However, the gift receivers do not feel it this way:
does not feel more appreciated when the ring is more expensive.
One example would be the engagement ring: the more it costs, the more it will show the givers appreciation, or so the givers think. Unfortunately for them, the fiancé-to-be
get a thoughtful gift. However, 'thoughtful' has a different meaning for the giver then for the receiver.
In sum, we can conclude gift receivers feel more appreciated when they
expensive, while the receiver thoughtful as carefully selected.
The giver considers thoughtful as
previous experience does not change the thought process.
Also, here (-> gift giving) applies the same as stated before about seeking help:
commitment.
Also, there are differences between giver and receiver when considering
the benefit from their help the receiver had received.
The givers commitment was determined by
the respect and treatment they got from the giver in the past.
The receiver on the other hand, felt the commitment was influenced by
altruistic, while receivers feel more committed when they feel loved. This can be caused by the selective recall bias: both giver and receiver want to recall something else.
You could state givers feel more committed when they feel
thankful the giver is not offended by the request, while the giver has to devalue their own generosity.
The social norms applied to the giver and receiver differ: the receiver must be
return over two times more than had been anticipated by the giver.
When a certain act is valued more by the receiver then by the giver, givers expect less in return from the receiver, while the receiver would want to return more. Studies show the receiver was even willing to
they have to help the other as well: reciprocity.
There is an universal norm which states when someone gets help,
how much can a giver expect in return, what is valuable and what is not.
However, reciprocity is surrounded by difficulties:
people tend to not ask that person for help again.
To get a better understanding of the problems givers and receivers experience, the authors propose some research directions. First of all, getting past 'no'. When asking for help, but getting a 'no',
the likelihood to help is increased.
On the other hand, when people are asked to consider this situation: when you get asked for help and you say no, what would you do when they ask you for help a second time, they state
more inclined to answer 'yes' to a smaller demand.
When first asking a large demand, and getting 'no' as an answer, people are
asked for a second time, when refusing the first time.
Also, we assume people are more willing to help when
they think the person will also refuse the second time.
However, people who are in the receiving role think this is the exact opposite: when asking to help the first time, and refused,
helpful, which makes it hard to refuse giving help. When asked a second time, this makes it even harder.
Most people tend to see themselves as
much more involved with our own social problems, to see it this way. (-> snap ik niet helemaal)
When in the receiver role though, we are
cooperation and conflict.
Another line of research could focus on the relation between
helping.
Conflicts between people can be solved by
asking for help or offering help.
The type of conflict determines which option is more fruitful to solve the conflict:
perceived arrogance or one of perceived selfishness.
The conflict could be one of
giving help to someone will do.
When a person is perceived as selfish,
asking for help might be the better choice.
When a person is perceived as arrogant, giving help will contribute to this view. In this case,
This causes people to accept help more easily. (-> snap ik niet helemaal)
The third future research request the authors pose is 'thanks, but no thanks'. In cooperation, giving help must be returned with receiving help.
ungrateful or offensive. Also, the help giver could be embarrassed.
When help is refused, it may be seen as
difficult for many people.
Accepting help is
how their employees could accept help with happiness.
Instead of promoting help giving behaviour, organisations should focus on
the receiver was more willing to accept the help then when the help was based on a cost-benefit analysis.
The interpretation of the behaviour of others givers and receivers have, differs. When someone makes a decision to help based on affect,
likes the giver a lot, but also thinks the giver is a bit dumb.
However, when the favor was big, the receiver expected the favor to be based on a cost-benefit analysis. When this is not the case, the receiver
get more respect and appreciation.
In a team, people who are seen as givers
more appreciation and respect from their group members.
Also, people who did not ask for help, were granted with
usually get less appreciation and respect.
People who were seen more as receivers,
the question phrase you use.
Influencing people to give help could easily be done by
over 25% more recipients filled out the questionnaire. There is a downside to this: when asked with the second phrase, participants expected something in return over twice as much.
In one study they wanted participants to fill out a questionnaire. They asked this in two manners: 'could you fill out this questionnaire for me', and 'could you do me a favor'. When using the second phrase,