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Level 5

Chapter 5


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Interspecific Competition
Occurs when members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resources such as food, water, light, and space.
Predation
Occurs when a member of one species (the predator) feeds directly on all or part of a member of another species (prey)
Parasitism
Occurs when one organism (the parasite) feeds on another organism (the host), usually by living on or in the host
Mutualism
An interaction that benefits both species by providing each with food, shelter, or some other resource
Commensalism
An interaction that benefits one species but has little or no effect on the other
Resource Partitioning
Occurs when species compeating for similar scarce resources evolve specialized traits that allow them to share resources by using parts of them at different times or in different ways.
Coevolution
When populations of two different species interact in such a way over a long period of time, changes in the gene pool of one species can lead to changes in the gene pool of the other. Such changes can help both sides to become more competative or to avoid or reduce competition.
Population
A group of interbreeding individuals in the same species
Age structure
It's distribution of indivuduals among various age groups
Range of tolerance
Variation in physical and chemical environments (ex. temperature pH etc)
Limiting factors
Physical and chemical factors that effect and regulate the population size
Limiting factors principle
Too much or too little of any physical or chemical factor can prevent thr growth of a population
Environmental resistence
Combination of all factors that act to limit population growth in nature
Carrying capacity
The maximum population of a given species that a particular habitat can sustain inddefinitely
Population crash
A population that suffers a sharp decline
Population density
The number of individuals in a population found in a particular area or volume
Ecological succession
Gradual change in species composition in a given area
Primary ecological succession
Gradual establishment of biotic communities in lifeless areas where there is no soil in a terestrial ecosystem
Secondary ecological succession
A series of communities or ecosystems with different species develop in places containing soil or bottom sediment
Inertia/Persistence
The ability of a living system such as a grassland or a forest to survive moderate disturbances
Resilience
The ability of a living system to be restored through secondary succession after a severe disturbance