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Level 20

Chapter 20


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Water pollution
Any change in water quality that can harm living organisms or make the water unfit for human uses such as irrigation and recreation.
Point Sources
A source of pollution that has a traceable source that can be found and blamed for the pollution. An example is a sewage dumping pipe, because you can find and see the single pipe.
Nonpoint Sources
A source of pollution that does not have a singular source that can be found. An example is runoff from farms that has fertilizers in it. It is impossible to find and trace each farm that has fertilizer containing runoff, so it is nonpoint.
Eutrophication
Eutrophication is when excess nutrients enter a body of water, typically nitrogen and phosphorous, through natural processes.
Cultural Eutrophication
Cultural eutrophication is when human activity leads to excess nutrients entering a slow moving or shallow body of water, often leading to algae blooms. This typically come from excess runoff of nitrogen and phosphorous from fertilizers. The algae bloom then dies and is decomposed. This decomposition process leads to an oxygen dead zone, so all the other organisms die.
Crude Petroleum
Oil as it comes out of the ground.
Refined Petroluem
Fuel oil, diesel, gasoline, and other processed petroleum products.
Septic Tank
Form of wastewater/sewage treatment in rural/suburban areas. Wastewater is pumped into a settling tank, where grease and oil float to the top, and solid material sinks to the bottom to be decomposed by bacteria
Primary Sewage Treatment
A physical process that uses screens and a grit tank to filter out large objects and let rocks and sand sink to the bottom
Secondary Sewage Treatment
A biological process in which aerobic bacteria remove as much as 90% of dissolved wastes
Bleaching
Bleach is added to remove water coloration.
Disinfection
To kill disease carrying bacteria.
Chlorination
Killing all of the disease-carrying bacteria and some viruses using chlorine.
Composting Toilet Systems
Use natural processes of decompesition and evaporation to recyle human waste.
Wetland Based Seawage Treatment Systems
A constructed wetland is an engineered sequence of water bodies designed to filter and treat waterborne pollutants found in sewage, industrial discharge, or storm water runoff.