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Level 17

Chapter 17


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Risk
The probability of suffering harm from a hazard that can cause injury, disease, death, economic loss, or damage
Risk Assessment
The process of using statistical methods to estimate how much harm a particular hazard can cause to human health ot the environment
Risk Management
Deciding weaher or how to reduce a particular risk or how to reduce a particular risk to a certain level
Pathogen
An organism that can cause disease in another organism
Infectious Disease
Caused when a pathogen such as a bacterium virus or parasite invades the body and multiplies its cells and tissues
Transmissable Disease
Infectious disease that can be transmitted from one person to another
Nontransmissible Disease
Infectious disease that can not be transmitted to another person
Emergent Disease
Infections that hve recently appeared within the population
Toxic chemical
A chemical that can cause temporary or perment harm to humans or animals. These include arsenic lead, mercury, vinyl cholride.
Carcinogens chemical
types of viruses or radiantes that can cause cancer (the unhealthy mutation of cells)
mutagens
chemicals or radients that increase the liklyhood of mutations or random changes in cells
Immune system
speiclized sells that protect thee body from disease or other harmful agens. Many toxic chemicals can hurt the immune system and kill humans by destroying their defense systems.
PCBs
class of 200 chlorine containing organic compounds. in the 20th century these compounds were widly used. Thus because of their persistance they are found in many places within the US. they can act as carcingones or cause diformities
Hormonally active agents
Sythetic chemicals that can act as natural compounds and are able to attach and cause damage to humans
Hormone blocker
disrupt the endocrine system by preventing natural hormones from being released
Gender benders
chemicals that can hurt endocrine sexaul development hormones
Phthalates
these chemicals are used to lessen the prevenlence of soften effects of pholyvinyl chloride in products. They have been shown to cause cancer
toxicity
a measure of the harmfulness of a substance- its ability to cause injury, illness, or death to a living organism
dose
the amount of a harmful chemical that a person has ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin
response
the damage to health resulting from exposure to a chemical
dose-response curve
estimating the toxicity of a chemical by determining the effects of various doses of the chemical on test organisms and plotting the results
genetic makeup
determines an individual's sensitivity to a particular toxin
multiple chemical sensitivity
one is sensitivie to a number of toxins
acute affect
an immediate or rapid harmful reaction ranging from dizziness to death
chronic effect
a permanent or long-lasting consequence of exposure to a single dose or to repeated lower doses of a harmful substance