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Level 15

Chapter 15


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net energy
Total amount of useful energy. This is the available energy minus the energy needed to make it available for use.
petroleum/crude oil
The raw form of oil that comes out of the ground.
peak production
When the pressure in the well drops and the rate of production of oil declines
petrochemicals
Can be used as raw materials in industrial organic chemicals, cleaning fluids, and pesticides.
proven oil reserves
Found supplies of oil that can be extracted for a reasonable profit
unproven reserves
Areas where oil supplies are predicted to be, where it may be extracted for a profit
tar sand/oil sand
Mixture of clay, sand, and water and a sustance called bitumen that is combustable
shale oil
Crushed oil shales that have been heated in a container.
Natural gas
underground deposits of gases containing 50-90% methane (CH4) and small amount sof heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane (C3H8) and Butane (C4H10)
Conventional Natural Gas
Gas that lies above most resevoirs of crude oil
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Mixture of liquefied propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) gas removed from natural gas and used as fuel
Unconventional natural gas
Gas that needs different methods to be extracted
Coal bed methane gas
Gas trapped in coal beds
Methane hydrate
Methane trapped in cage lige icy water molecule structures
liquefied natural gas (LNG)
Natural gas converted to liquid form by cooling it to a very low temperature
Coal
Solid, combustile mixture of organic compounds with 30-98% carbon by weight, and small amounts of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. It forms in several stages as the remains of plants are subjected to heat and pressure over millions of years.
synthetic natural gas (SNG)
Gaseous fuel containing mostly methane produced from solid coal.
Clean coal
Misleading idea created by media companies of coal corporations that coal can be clean, however it can only burn more cleanly
Coal gasification
Conversion of solid coal into synthetic natural gas (SNG)
Coal liquefaction
Conversion of solid coal to a liquid hydrocarbon fuel such as synthetic gasoline or methanol.
Synfuels
Fuel made by converting coal, these fuels produce less air pollution
Nuclear fusion
Nuclear change in which two nuclei of isotopes of elements with a low mass number (such as hydrogen-2 and hydrogen-3) are forced together at extremely high temperatures until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus (like helium-4). This process releases a large amount of energy.
Chernobyl
the site of the world's most serious nuclear power plant accident
Nuclear power
is power released in nuclear reactions that can be converted into electric power
Nuclear fuel cycle
the series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors.
Dry cask
a method of storing high-level radioactive waste, such as spent nuclear fuel that has already been cooled in the spent fuel pool for at least one year and often as much as ten years. Casks are typically steel cylinders that are either welded or bolted closed.
High-level radioactive wastes
the highly radioactive materials produced as a byproduct of the reactions that occur inside nuclear reactors.