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Level 14

Chapter 14


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geology
the study of dynamic processes taking place on earth's surface
core
earths inner most zone-- solid
Mantle
most of the mantle is solid rock
Asthenoshpere
a zone of hot partly melted rock that can flow and can be deformed like soft plastic
Crust
the outermost and thinnest zone of the earth. It consists of the continental crust and oceanic crust
Lithosphere
the combination of the crust and the ridge, outermost part of the mantle
Tectonic Plates
Lithosphere that is broken up into huge rigid plates which move extremely slow atop the asthenosphere
Weathering
Physical chemical and biological process that break down rocks into smaller particles help to build soil
Volcano
Occurs where magma reaches the earth's surface through a center vent or a long crack called a fissure
Earthquake
When a fault forms or when there is an aburpt movement on an existing fault, energy that has accumulated over time is realeased in the form of vibrations
Mineral
An element of inorganic compiund that occurs naturally in the earrths crust as a crystalline solid. It can also have a repeating regular internal arangement of atoms.
Rock
A solid combination of one or more minerals found in the earths crust. There are three broad classes of rock.
Sedimentary rock
One of the types of rock. It is made of sediments (dead plant and animal remains and weathered rock particles) that have been cemented together by weight and pressure.
Igneous rock
Rock that forms when magma wells up from the upper mantle, cools, then hardens.
Metamorphic Rock
Forms when rock is subjected to high temperatures and high pressure, or chemically active fluids. These reshape the internal structure of preexisting rock to create a new rock.
Rock Cycle
The rock cycle is the process by which types of rock transform into other types of rock. It is the slowest of the Earths cyclical process
Mineral resources
concentration of naturally occurring material from crust, can be extracted, made into a product
ore
rock with high concentration of particular metal-can be mined profitably
high-grade ore
large concentrations of desired material
low-grade ore
smaller concentration
surface mining
shallow deposits, top layer of earth is removed to get at minerals
overburden
soil/rock covering the deposit
spoils
waste materials, put in piles
open-pit mining
machines dig big holes, ores plus sand/gravel removed
strip mining
useful, economical, large horizontal beds/deposits, earthmover strips away overburden, power shovel removes mineral
contour strip mining
mine on hillside, terraces cut into side of hill, overburden removed, minerals extracted
mountaintop removal
explosives, bulldozers, eartghmovers, draglines remove top of mountain to access minerals
subsurface mining
underground mineral resources removed, tunnels/shafts dug
smelting
heating ores to release metals
Depletion Time
The time is takes to use up 80% o the reserves of a mineral at a given rate of use.