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Level 10

Chapter 10


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Old growth forest
a forest that has been able to age wihtout interaction from humans
Primary forest
same as old growth forest
Second growth forest
a forest resulting from secondary ecological succesion
tree plantation
a managed forest containing only one or two species of trees that are typically all the same age
tree farm
a managed forest containing only one or two species of trees that are typically all the same age
commercial forest
a managed forest containing only one or two species of trees that are typically all the same age
biofuel
when wood is used for heating and cooking
industrial wood
wood that is used for lumber and paper production
Clear cut
A method of harvesting forests that completly clears the vegatation in an area
Selective cutting
A method of harvesting forests that targets only middle aged and mature trees
Strip cutting
a method of harvesting forests that clears a strip of trees along the contour of a forest
Surface fires
a fire that only kills undergrowth and small saplings
Crown fire
a fire that goes from tree top to tree top, it can burn whole trees at a time.
Deforestation
temporary or perminant removal of large expanses of forest for agriculture or other human developpments
National forest system
forests on federal lands under the management of the US Forest Service
Tipping point
An ecosystem reaching an irreversible ecological tipping point.
Preverse Subsidies
Phase out government subsidies and tax breaks that envourage degradation and deforestation and replace them with forest sustaining economic rewards.
Slash
highly flammable logging debry
Perscribed burns
setting small contained surface fires to remove flammable small trees and underbrush in the highest risk forest areas.
Kenaf
Rapidly growing woody annual plant. Used to make paperand produces more than tree farms do.
Failing states
coutries that may not survive this century
Debt for nature swaps
contries act as custodian of protected forest reserves in return ofr foreign aid or debt relife.
Conservation concession
Governments or private consrvation organizations pay nations for agreeing to preserve their natural resources
Rangelands
Unfenced grasslands in temperate and tropical climates that supply forage or vegitation for grzing and browsing animals.
Overgrazing
Destruction of vegetation when too many grazing animals feed too long on a specific area of pasture or rangeland and exceed the carrying capacity ofa rangeland or pasture area
Rotational grazing
the practice of moving grazing livestock between pastures (often called paddocks) as needed or on a regular basis
Riparian zones
A thin strip or patch of vegetation that surrounds a stream. These zones are very important habitats and resources for wildlife.
Conservation easements
voluntary legal agreement between a landowner and a land trust or government agency that permanently limits uses of the land in order to protect its conservation values.
Buffer zones concept
protecting the inner core of a preserve by establishing 2 buffer zones in which local people can extract resources sustainably without harming the inner core
Biosphere reserves
protected areas consisting of zones that vary in amount of premissible human impact - created by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Habitat corridours
an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging).
Mega resserves
A reserve which contains a protected inner core surrounded by two buffer zones that local people use to farm, graze, fish, log, etc.
Biodiversity hotspots
They are areas especially rich in plant species that are found nowhere else and are at risk for extinction.
Milenium ecosystem assessment
A 4 year study done by 1,360 experts in which they identified key ecosystem services and found that human activities are degrading ecosystems.
life raft ecosystems
Areas where poverty levels are high, where a large part of the economy depends on ecosystem services that are being degraded to threaten well being of life and other forms of life.
ecological restoration
It is the process of repairing damage caused by humans to the biodiversity and dynamics of natural ecosystems
reconsilliation ecology
A science that focuses on inventing and maintaining new habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people live, work, etc, also known as sharing the space with species.