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Chapter 1

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Everything around us, including living and non-living things like air, wind, and water. We interact with it in a complex web of relationships.
Environmental Science
An interdisciplinary study of how humans interact with the living and nonliving parts of their environment
The study of how organisms interact with each other
A living thing
A group of organisms that have a unique set of characteristics that distinguish them from all other organisms and, for organisms that reproduce sexually, mate and produce fertile offspring.
Solar Energy
Heat energy from the sun that warms the planet and supports photosynthesis, as well as indirectly powers wind and flowing water energy.
The astounding variety of organisms, the natural systems in which they exist and interact, and the natural services that these organisms and living systems provide. Allows for adaptability.
Natural Capital
The natural resources and natural services that keep us and other organisms alive, as well as support our economies
Natural Resources
Materials and energy in nature that are essential or useful to humans. They are either renewable (wind, water, sun) or nonrenewable (oil, coal, copper).
Natural Services
Processes in nature like purification of air and water and renewal of topsoil, which support life and human economies.
Anything that we can obtain from the environment to meet our needs and wants.
Environmental degradation
Depletion or destruction of a potentially renewable resource
Natural capital degradation
Same as environmental degradation
Any presence within the environment of a chemical or other agent such as noise, or heat at a level that is harmful to the health, survival, or activities of humans or other organisms
Point source
Are single, identifiable sources of pollution
Non-point source
Are dispersed and oftern difficult to identify
Pollution cleanup
Cleaning up or diluting pollutants after we have produced them
Output pollution control
Cleaning up or diluting pollutants after we have produced them
Pollution prevention
Reduces or eliminates the production of pollutants
Input pollution control
Reduces or eliminates the production of pollutants
Exponential Growth
When a quantity increases at a fixed percentage per unit of time
When people are unable to fulfill their basic needs for adequate water, food, shelter health and education
Enviromental worldview
Your set of assumptions and values reflecting how you think the world works and what your role should be
Enviromental Ethics
beliefs about what is right and wrong with how we treat our environment
Planetary management worldwide
we are seperate from and in charge of nature, and it exists to meet our needs and wants
Stewardship worldwide
we can and should manage the earth for our benefit, but that we have ethical responsibility to e caring and responsible managers
Enviromentally sustainable society
Meets current and future basic needs resource needs of its people in a just and equitable manner without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their basic needs
Natural income
the renewable resources such as plants, animals and soil provided by the earths natural capital
Social capital
result of getting people with different views and values to talk and listen to one another, find common ground, and work togeher to solve problems
Perpetual Resource
A resource with a continous supply
Renewable Resource
A resource that takes anywhere from several days to several hundred years to be replenished through natural processes.
Sustainable Yield
The highest rate at which we can use a renwable resource indefinitely without reducing its available supply.
Nonrenewable Resource
Resources that exist in a fixed quantity in the Earth's crust
Using a rresource over and over in the same form
Collecting waste materials and processing them into new materils
Economic growth
AN increase in a nation's output of goods and services
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Annual market value of all goods and services producved by all businesses, foreign and domestic, operating within a country.
Per Capita GDP
GDP divided by the total population at mid year. Changes in a country's economic growth are measured by this.
Economic development
An effort to use economic growth to improve living standards.
Or wealth, consuming large amounts of resources far beyond their basic needs
Ecological footprint
the amount of biologicall productive land and water needed to provide the people in a praticular country or area with an indefinite supply of renewable resources and absorb and recycle the wastes and pollution produced by resources use.
More Developed Countries (MEDCs)
Countries with high average income. Include US, Canada, Japan, Australia, NZ, and most European countries.
Less Developed Countries (LEDCs)
All oter nations, most of them in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Can range from middle income, moderately-developed countries like China, India, and Turkey to low income, least developed countries like Haiti, Nicaragua, and Nigeria.
Per capita ecological footprint
Is the average ecological footprint of an individual in a given country or area
Ecological tipping point
An irreversable shift in the behavior of a natural system
Sustainability revolution
Cultural transformation to reduce our ecological footprints