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The Spanish Armada

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Spanish navy (fleet of ships).
Philip II first begins preparing his Armada for an invasion of England.
Elizabeth strengthened England's defences.
How did Elizabeth strengthen defences?
Beacons were set up; trading ships converted to fighting ships; counties ordered to provide troops to protect coastline.
Drake sent on an expedition to West Indies (probably to steal treasure to fund the war with Spain).
Consequences of Drake's raids in West Indies
Philip II sped up his plans to invade England and stop Drake's raids.
Drake sailed into Cadiz harbour and damaged the Spanish ships anchored there.
How the Cadiz raid (1587) is referred to
Singeing the King of Spain's beard.
Consequences of Drake's Cadiz raid
Delayed the sailing of the Armada for one year.
Spanish Armada set out to invade England and depose Elizabeth.
New ships built from the 1570s which were easier and quicker to manoeuvre.
John Hawkins
Persuaded Elizabeth to improve English ship design to make ships faster.
Cannons on English ships
Had enough room to recoil and be quickly reloaded. This meant they could fire more than Spanish ships.
Spanish Plan
Sail to Calais and pick up 20,000 troops; land in Kent; English Catholics to rise up and depose Elizabeth.
Spanish supplies
Barrels weren't good quality which meant their food rotted. Lacked cannon balls.
Problems for the Spanish
Supplies bad quality; communication difficult; lacked a secure deep sea port.
Number of ships in the Spanish Armada
Duke of Medina Sidonia
Commander of the Armada. He got seasick.
Duke of Parma
Commander of Spanish troops in the Netherlands. Meant to meet the Armada in Calais with 20,000 soldiers.
July 1588
Armada spotted in Channel. English navy left Plymouth to chase them.
Tilbury Speech
Elizabeth gave a famous speech to her troops in Essex in July 1588.
Crescent formation
Shape the Armada sailed in up the English Channel.
Lord Howard
Commander of the English navy (Lord High Admiral).
Sir Francis Drake
Vice Admiral of the Fleet
8 old English ships were filled with flammable material and sent towards the Spanish ships anchored at Calais.
Reaction of the Spanish to the fireships.
Panic. Armada was blown towards the Netherlands and was scattered.
Who ordered the fireships to be sent?
Lord Howard
August 8th 1588
Battle of Gravelines
Conditions in the Battle of Gravelines
Poor weather, rough seas, bad visibility.
Number of Spanish sailors killed in the Battle of Gravelines.
Number of English sailors killed in the Battle of Gravelines.
Spanish Armada returns home
Wind forced the Armada to return home around Scotland and Ireland. Many ships were wrecked by bad weather.
About 80
Number of Spanish ships which made it home.
Protestant wind
Elizabeth claimed God had sent this to defeat the Armada.
Reasons for defeat of Armada: Leadership
Elizabeth trusted her commanders but Philip II wanted to give constant orders.
Reasons for defeat of Armada: Weather
Storms near Spain damaged the Armada's supplies;
Reasons for defeat of Armada: English tactics
Faster ships; longer-range guns; kept their distance so the Spanish couldn't board their ships; fireships.
Reasons for defeat of Armada: Poor Supplies
Food stored in poor quality barrels; lacked cannon balls.
Reasons for defeat of Armada: Poor Communication
Spanish plan relied on Duke of Parma bringing soldiers to meet the Armada but it was hard to co-ordinate from ships.
Consequences for England
Felt proud to have defeated a powerful enemy; gave England confidence to explore and trade more.
Consequences for Spain
Huge financial cost. Start of a decline for Spain's power.
How Elizabeth celebrated
Commissioned the Armada portrait; special commemorative medal made.