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Causes of the War with Spain


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Elizabeth's Foreign Policy Aims
Improve trade; protect borders and her throne; avoid war (expensive).
Causes of War with Spain
Religion; commercial rivalry; England's involvement in the Netherlands; political rivalry over empire.
Main trade in 1550s
Wool and woollen cloth traded via Antwerp.
Trade in Elizabethan times
Merchants were searching for new markets and trade partners, as cloth trade had collapsed.
Problems for English merchants
Spain controlled the Netherlands (main route into European markets) and the New World.
New World
Name for the Americas which had just been 'discovered' by Europeans.
Spanish Empire
Covered most of South and Central America and the Caribbean.
licence
Needed to trade in the Spanish Empire. Any trade without one was illegal.
Francis Drake
English merchant and privateer, supported by Elizabeth.
privateer
Individuals who capture ships and cargo with the support of their government.
Nombre de Dios, 1572
Drake attacked Spanish ships at Nombre de Dios, Panama. Stole £20,000 worth of treasure.
Cacafuego
Spanish treasure ship captured by Drake in 1579. £140,000 worth of treasure taken.
Golden Hinde
Drake's ship on which he circumnavigated the globe.
Circumnavigation of the Globe
Drake sailed all the way around the world, 1577-80. He was the 2nd person ever to do so and the 1st Englishman.
Outcome of Drake's circumnavigation
Stole £400,000 of Spanish treasure. Drake claimed land in North California from Spain. Drake knighted (had made lots of money for Elizabeth).
How did Philip II react to Drake's knighthood?
Outraged - Drake was a pirate!
John Hawkins
Privateer. One of the first Englishmen to get involved in the Trans Atlantic slave trade.
Spain's religion
Catholicism (people were Catholics).
England's religion
Protestantism (people were Protestant).
Netherlands
Part of the Spanish empire. Modern-day Netherlands and Belgium.
Dutch Rebellion
The Dutch first rebelled against Spanish rule in 1566. Many of them were Protestants.
How did Elizabeth help the Dutch Rebellion at first?
Indirectly - sent money and allowed rebels to use English ports.
sea beggars
Dutch rebel pirates who were allowed to shelter in English ports.
Why did Elizabeth not help directly at first?
Wanted to avoid war with Spain.
English Channel
A part of the sea which was important for English trade and security and Spain's access to the Netherlands.
Duke of Parma
Leader of the Spanish army in the Netherlands in 1578.
Duke of Alencon
French noble who led an army in the Netherlands with Elizabeth's financial support. Failed.
William of Orange
Leader of the Dutch rebels. Assassinated in 1584 (which increased Elizabeth's fears of assassination).
Treaty of Joinville
French Catholic League and Philip II signed a treaty in 1584 to end Protestantism in Europe.
Significance of Treaty of Joinville
Seemed like France and Spain were joining toegther to fight Protestantism (and therefore England).
Treaty of Nonsuch
Elizabeth agreed to direct involvement in the Netherlansd in 1585.
What did the Treaty of Nonsuch say?
Elizabeth would pay for and send an army of 7000 to help the Dutch rebels.
7000
Number of soldiers Elizabeth promised to send to the Netherlands in the Treaty of Nonsuch.
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester
Commander of the English soldiers sent to the Netherlands.
Governor General of the Low Countries
Title accepted by Dudley for Elizabeth. Angered Elizabeth and outraged Philip as suggested she wanted to rule the Netherlands.
1585
Year Spain and England were considered to be at war (due to English involvement in the Netherlands).
Flushing
Deep sea port which Dudley prevented the Duke of Parma from capturing.
Why did English involvement in the Netherlands fail?
Elizabeth didn't give the rebels enough support, which led to poor relations with the Dutch rebels.