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Mary, Queen of Scots
Elizabeth's cousin. Queen of Scotland until 1567.
Why was Mary a threat?
Heir to the English throne and a Catholic.
Mary's son who became King of Scotland when Mary was forced to abdicate.
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Mary's second husband who was murdered (possibly with Mary's help).
Mary arrived in England asking for Elizabeth's help against Scottish Protestant lords.
Elizabeth's Options Dealing with Mary
Help her; send her back to Scotland; allow her to go abroad; keep her in England.
How Elizabeth dealt with Mary
Kept her imprisoned.
Revolt of the Northern Earls
Religion in the north
Most people were Catholics.
Why did the Northern Earls revolt?
Wanted Catholicism in England; the earls had lost influence at court; possibly thought Elizabeth could be replaced by Mary, Queen of Scots.
Who led the Revolt of the Northern Earls?
Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland; Charles Neville, Earl of Westmorland; Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk.
Earl of Northumberland
Thomas Percy. A leader in the Revolt of the Northern Earls.
Earl of Westmorland
Charles Neville. A leader in the Revolt of the Northern Earls.
Events of the Revolt of the Northern Earls
Stormed Durham Cathedral; captured Hartlepool; royal army of 10,000 men led to the rebels fleeing.
Why did the Revolt fail?
Spain didn't send supporting troops; most English Catholics didn't support it.
What happened to the rebels?
Earls escaped to Scotland; 450 rebels were executed.
Consequences of the Revolt
Treason laws became harsher; Catholics were treated worse; Percy and Neville families lost power; Papal Bull issued.
The Ridolfi Plot
Who organised the Ridolfi plot?
Roberto Ridolfi, an Italian banker. He might have been a double agent.
What did Ridolfi do?
Carried messages from Mary, Queen of Scots to the Duke of Alva, the Pope and Philip asking them to invade England.
Aim of the Ridolfi Plot
Overthrow Elizabeth and make Mary, Queen of Scots Queen. Restore Catholicism. Marry Duke of Norfolk to Mary.
Elizabeth's spy master. Secretary of State from 1573.
Consequences of Ridolfi Plot
Duke of Norfolk was executed.
Significance of the Ridolfi Plot
Showed Catholics and Spain were a threat. Elizabeth tried to improve England's relationship with France.
Plan was for French Duke of Guise to invade, free Mary, overthrow Elizabeth, restore Catholicism.
Duke of Guise
Mary's French cousin.
Messenger between Mary, Queen of Scots and the French and Spanish ambassadors.
Philip II's involvement in Throckmorton Plot
When was the Throckmorton Plot discovered?
How was the Plot discovered?
Throckmorton was spied upon; letters to leading Catholic nobles and details of harbours suitable for invasion found in his house.
What happened to Throckmorton?
He was tortured to get him to confess and then executed.
What happened to others involved?
Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland killed himself in the Tower.
Consequences of Throckmorton Plot
Spanish ambassador expelled; councillors looked for strong evidence against Mary, as Elizabeth not safe whilst she lived.
What happened during the Babington Plot?
Babington wrote to Mary about 6 steps needed to free England from Protestantism. Included killing Elizabeth.
Elizabeth's government had been spying on Mary since the Throckmorton Plot.
How was the Babington Plot discovered?
Walsingham intercepted all Mary's letters and deciphered them.
Consequences of Babington Plot
Babington and accomplices executed; Mary put on trial.
Outcome of Mary, Queen of Scots' trial
Mary beheaded in 1587 at Fotheringhay Castle.
Significance of the Babington Plot
Government became determined to crush Catholicism; ended Catholic hopes of replacing Elizabeth.
Why was Mary executed?
Part in the plot, plus by 1587 clear that Philip II planned to invade - too dangerous for Mary to live.
Walsingham's spy network
Spies in every county and important town, plus some abroad.
Walsingham used these kinds of spies who joined groups and encouraged the members to break the law so they'd be found.