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Religion in Elizabethan England


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Religious Settlement
1559
1559
Religious Settlement
Protestant areas
London, south-east and East Anglia.
Catholic areas
The North and west of England.
Supreme Governor of the Church of England
Elizabeth's title as head of the Church.
Protestantism
Elizabeth's religion
compromise
Elizabeth hoped her settlement would please Catholics and Protestants.
Aim of the Religious Settlement
Unite the country.
Act of Supremacy
Law which made Elizabeth Supreme Governor of the Church.
oath
All royal officials and clergy had to swear an oath of allegiance to Elizabeth.
Act of Uniformity
Law which said what churches and services should be like.
Royal Injunctions
Instructions issued by Sir William Cecil on behalf of the Queen.
Ecclesiastical High Commission
Group set up to enforce the Settlement and discipline church clergy.
Book of Common Prayer
Prayer book to be used in all churches.
Punishment for not attending church
Fine of 1 shilling.
Elizabeth's attitude to punishment
Happy as long as people outwardly loyal. Didn't want to burn heretics like her sister had.
heretic
Someone who speaks out against the beliefs of the Church.
Bible
Every parish had to have a copy in English.
Church decoration
Ornaments and paintings were allowed to please Catholics. Puritans complained.
The Clergy
Allowed to marry; had to wear a surplice (plain black gown); had to be licensed.
What was banned?
Pilgrimages (religious journeys).
Bishops
Only one bishop agreed to take the oath of loyalty, so Elizabeth had to appoint 27 new ones.
Reaction of ordinary people
Most people went to Church, even if they kept their Catholic beliefs.
Church courts
Decided some moral issues such as marriage.
Visitations
Inspections every 3-4 years to make sure churches enforced the Religious Settlement.
Puritans
Extreme Protestants who wanted a 'pure' church with no Catholic bits.
The Crucifix Controversy
Puritans didn't like crucifixes (images of Christ on the cross); Elizabeth wanted to keep them.
The Vestment Controversy
Elizabeth wanted some special vestments for clergy (Catholic tradition).
What did Puritans object to?
Church decoration; bishops; vestments; Queen as Supreme Governor (thought there should be no head).
What did Puritans campaign for?
Removal of holy days; crucifixes; organ music; plain black gowns for clergy.
Counter-Reformation
Pope was actively trying to fight against Protestants.
1566
Pope ordered that English Catholics should not go to Church of England services.
martyr
Someone who dies for their religion. Elizabeth wanted to avoid creating martyrs.
recusants
People who refused to attend church.
1570 Papal Bull
Pope excommunicates Elizabeth (throws her out of the Church) and encourages Catholics to depose her.
Why did Elizabeth start to punish Catholics?
Arrival in England of Mary, Queen of Scots; rebellions from 1569; Papal Bull 1570; Jesuit missions.
1571
Act of Parliament passed which said active Catholics were traitors and could be executed.
Jesuits
Missionaries sent to England to spread Catholicism from 1574.
Punishment for recusants from 1581
Fine of £20.
Punishment for Jesuits if caught
Hanged, drawn and quartered.