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When a nation sets up a government under its rule in a foreign territory.
English explorer and courtier. Credited with bringing tobacco and potatoes to England from South America.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
English explorer. Expeditions to North America failed. Half-brother of Raleigh.
Raleigh given a grant by Elizabeth to set up a colony in North America.
What did Raleigh do to set up a colony in Virginia
Investigated, organised and raised funds. Encouraged settlers to go. Appointed a governor to rule for him.
Name for the English colony in North America in honour of Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen.
Why did Elizabeth want to establish a colony in North America?
As a base for attacking Spanish empire, to stop the French and Spanish settling there, to offer a better life for some poor people, prestige, resources.
Investigating the land
1584 Raleigh sent 2 ships to explore modern-day North Carolina. Positive reports and 2 Native Americans brought back.
Manteo and Wanchese
2 Native Americans brought to England by the 1584 investigative expedition. Taught the English Algonquin (their language).
How would the colony be funded?
Raleigh wanted the government to pay but Elizabeth refused. Raleigh promised to steal Spanish treasure to encourage investors.
How many colonists did Raleigh hope to send?
What supplies would the colonists need?
Seeds, tools, food for voyage, weapons, water for voyage, salt for preserving food.
108 male settlers sailed for Virginia under Sir Richard Grenville.
How many settlers first went to Virginia?
Expedition commander. Sailor.
Governor of Virginia. Expert on fort building.
Learnt Algonquin. Translator and cartographer (map maker) on the voyage to Virginia.
Where the colony was established (set up).
Why didn't Raleigh go to Virginia?
Raleigh was one of Elizabeth's favourite courtiers, so she didn't want him to go as it was dangerous.
What was a problem when they landed?
It was too late to plant some of the crops they'd planned on planting.
What was the relationship like with Native Americans?
Ok at first, but soon some tribes were angry that the English were taking valuable land and resources.
Settlers chose to return home to England with Sir Francis Drake.
Why was the colonisation significant?
Undermined Spain; start of British empire; trade vital - could grow tobacco and sugar cane.
Reasons for failure: voyage
Left England too late to plant some crops. The Tiger was damaged en route.
Reasons for failure: environment
Hot and humid which meant food rotted quickly. Mosquitoes.
Reasons for failure: expectations
Merchants thought they'd get rich quickly and didn't want to put in the effort of establishing colony.
Reasons for failure: lack of co-operation
Gentleman and merchants didn't want to do physical work. Farmers wanted to work for themselves.
Reasons for failure: Native American resistance
Local chief, Wingina, was unpredictable and suspicious. He joined with other chiefs to attack the English.
Tried to settle again, with 17 women as well as men. Manteo (Native American) made Lord by Raleigh.
Head of 1587 expedition. Went home to report. Returned to Roanoke in 1590 and found it deserted.
What happened to the Roanoke settlers?
No one knows! No trace was found.