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Exploration and Drake's Circumnavigation


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Why did Elizabethans explore?
Expand trade; new technology helped e.g. navigation, ship design.
trade
buying and selling
When did Europeans start exploring?
Late 1400s
Aim of exploration
To find shorter sea routes to the East to buy silk and spices.
Most powerful maritime countries in 1500s
Spain and Portugal
Reason to explore: conflict with Spain
To capture Spanish treasure and land in the New World.
Reason to explore: find new markets
When the cloth trade collapsed in the 1550s, English merchants needed to find new markets.
Reason to explore: make money
The Queen and many rich nobles sponsored expeditions e.g. those of Drake.
Reason to explore: spread Protestantism
Explorers thought they should convert people to Christianity.
Reason to explore: increase knowledge
1500s (Renaissance period) - people wanted to know more about the world and books encouraged exploration.
Reason to explore: civilize other places
English explorers thought people in other places would better themselves through contact with the English.
Reason to explore: leadership
Experienced captains like Drake and Hawkins inspired their crews to follow them anywhere.
Gerardus Mercator
A famous map maker who used lines of longitude and latitude so maps were more accurate.
Why Mercator's maps were better
More accurate so easier to find your way.
navigation
Finding your way.
astrolabe
An instrument that helped sailors calculate their latitude at sea.
quadrant
A navigational instrument.
galleon
An improved type of ship first used by the Portuguese.
caravel
A smaller ship.
How were galleons and caravels better?
Stronger, faster, easier to manoeuvre and could carry more goods.
lateen sails
New triangular sails which could catch the wind easily.
Triangular Trade
Trading across the Atlantic. Guns, cloth taken to Africa. Slaves taken to the Americas. Sugar to Europe.
John Hawkins
Captain of one of the first English slaving voyages.
circumnavigation of the globe
Sailing around the world. Drake was the first Englishman to do so (second person ever).
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer and privateer. Circumnavigated the globe.
1577-1580
Drake's Circumnavigation
Aim of Drake's voyage
To raid Spanish colonies in Pacific, to seek revenge for a Spanish raid on Hawkins' fleet in 1568, claim new lands, find trade routes.
£500,000,000
Estimates of value of treasure brought home by Drake from his circumnavigation.
5
Number of ships Drake set out with.
1
Number of ships Drake returned home with.
Pelican
Original name of the Golden Hinde (Drake's ship which returned home after the circumnavigation).
Golden Hinde
New name given to Drake's ship when it returned home after the circumnavigation.
Stage 1 of Drake's journey
Sailed to Cape Verde, then Brazil.
Stage 2 of Drake's journey
Brazil to Pacific coast. Doughty charged with mutiny and executed, fleet reduced to 3 ships, sailed into Pacific and captured the Cacafuego.
Cacafuego
Spanish treasure ship captured by Drake in 1579. £140,000 worth of treasure taken.
Nova Albion
Drake's name for land he claimed in Elizabeth's name in modern-day California in 1579.
Reaction of Native Americans to Drake's landing in California
Peaceful and hospitable. Gave Europeans the impression they could settle.
Stage 3 of Drake's journey
Sailed home west across the Pacific to the Spice Islands (Indonesia) then home.
Why was Drake's voyage significant?
Established England as great maritime nation, encouraged further exploration, encouraged colonies in America, damaged relations with Spain.
What were the consequences for Drake?
He was knighted (called 'Sir'). Made a huge amount of money.