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jailbreaking
the process of removing the limitations imposed by manufacturers on devices running an operating system through the use of custom kernels
joystick
a cursor control device in the form of a movable stick that is usually used for controlling video games
JPEG
a commonly used method of lossy compression for image
JUMP command instruction
a programming instruction that causes a program to change its normal sequence
junk email
unwanted and unsolicited email that is normally advertising or trying to sell something
KDE
a graphical user interface used with the Linux operating system; Matthias Ettrich chose to use Trolltech’sQt framework for the this project
kernel
the lowest level layer at the core of an operating system, which deals with allocating hardware resources to the rest of the operating system and the application programs.
keyboard shortcut
a series of one or several keys that invoke a software or operating system operation when triggered by the user
keyboard
the main electronic input device that has keys arranged in a similar layout to a typewriter
keylogger
a software program or hardware device that records all keystrokes on a computer keyboard, used as spyware or as a surveillance tool
keystroke
the process of pressing and releasing a key on a keyboard
keyword stuffing
an SEO technique used by Web designers to overload keywords onto a Web page so that search engines will read the page as being relevant in a Web search
keyword
a word used to categorise documents or records in a file, also using such words can be used by a search engine to find relevant links on the Internet
killer application
an application program that is particularly useful and popular, making a computer system very successful
kindle
a line of Android-powered portable e-book reader devices developed by Amazon that enable users to shop for, download and read electronic versions of books, newspapers, magazines, websites, blogs and more
knowledge base
a collection of information that can be easily modified, revised and manipulated to enable the user to solve particular problems
L2 cache
a memory cache outside the CPU
lag
a noticeable delay between the action of players and the reaction of the server in a video game
LAN
a network linking a number of nodes in the same area, limited usually to a building or sites up to a kilometre apart
language processor
software that performs computer language translation
laser printer
a printer that prints using toner powder and laser light on a photosensitive drum
latency
the time between initiating a network request and receiving a response (in milliseconds)
layer
in graphics software the term used to describe the different levels at which you can place an object or image file
layout
the overall design of a page, spreadsheet, or book, including elements such as page and type size, typeface, and the arrangement of titles and page numbers
Liquid Crystal Display
one type of technology that is used to produce flat monochrome computer screens, which do not have their own internal illumination
leased line
a cable connection that is rented for use in a communication system
light-emitting diode
a semiconductor diode which glows when a voltage is applied
level
in gaming, the main characteristic of a player, indicating his overall effectiveness
library
a set of programmed functions that are made available for use by any program
light pen
a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with a computer’s CRT display, allowing the user to point to displayed objects or draw on the screen in a similar way to a touchscreen but with greater positional accuracy
line size
the amount of data transferred each time there is a transfer between the main memory and cache memory
link farm
a group of websites where all hyperlinks lead to every other site in the group
linkage editor
a systems program which fetches required systems routines and links them to the application program object module
linked list
a method of organizing stored data in a computer’s memory or on a storage medium based on the logical order of the data and not the physical order; all stored data records are assigned a physical address in memory that the computer uses to locate the information; it arranges the data by logic rather than by physical address
linux distribution
the Linux-user term for a complete operating system kit complete with the utilities and applications needed to make it do useful things, e.g. command interpreters, programming tools, text editors, typesetting tools and graphical user interfaces
liquid crystal display
an electronic display device that uses liquid crystal cells to control the reflection of light
LiveCD
an operating system distribution that is executed upon boot using a CD-ROM, without installation on a hard drive
load module
the program which is directly executable by the computer
load
to copy a program from a storage device into the computer’s memory
localhost
the standard hostname given to the address of the loopback network interface
log in
identify oneself to a computer, usually by entering one’s username and password
log on
to connect to a network system account, normally using a password
log out
perform the necessary actions to close a computer program or leave a computer system
log
to record the time that an event happened; a record of when an event happened
logic bomb
destructive code introduced into a program that is triggered by some event taking place on the computer system at a later time
logic circuit
a digital electronic circuit that compares two or more inputs and gives an output according to a particular rule of logic
logical operation
an operation on logical values producing a Boolean result of true or false
logical record
the collection of data in a database relating to one subject
login
a person’s username and password that allows them to to log into a computer system, network, device, or user account
look-up table
a method by which a program uses two sets of related records to find a required value, quicker than calculating the value using a formula but taking up more memory place
loop structure
used to repeatedly execute a group of statements
low-level language
a computer language such as machine code or assembly language that is closer to the form that a computer understands than to that of a human language
loyalty card
an electronic card that gives the owner discount on purchases at a particular store depending on how much they spend
lurk
to receive and read articles or messages in a newsgroup or other online conference without contributing to the ongoing exchange