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dark web
the public World Wide Web content that exists on darknets, networks which overlay the public Internet and require specific software, configurations or authorization to access
Data as a Service
a cloud strategy used to facilitate the accessibility of business-critical data in a well-timed, protected and affordable manner
data bank
an organized repository for comprehensive information on one or more subjects which can be searched through and stored quickly
data centre
a facility for storing large amounts of information
data channel
the common name for the part of an ISDN line that carries signalling and supervisory information to the network
data communications
the transmission and reception of data signals using a communications network and appropriate protocols
data frame
one of a number of predefined slices into which data may be broken for transmission
data integrity
a measure of how resistant a system is to causing corruption in data while it is being stored or transferred
data mart
a storage system that archives large amounts of data in a way that makes it easy to access
data mining
a process of analysing a large amount of stored data to find new useful information
data processing
the handling or manipulating of information called data which is specially prepared to be understood by the computer
data races
concurrent accesses to the same memory location in which at least one of the accesses is a write and at least one of the accesses is not notified to the compiler with an appropriate annotation
data stream
the flow of data
data
the information processed by a computer
database
a type of applications program used for storing information so that it can be easily searched and sorted
database management system
a software system designed to handle multiple requests for data access while at the same time maintaining the integrity of the data
data-delivery system
a system for transmitting data from one computer to another
data-link layer
the part of a network communications system that supervises the transmission; it confirms the checksum, then addresses and duplicates the packets, it keeps a copy of each packet until it receives confirmation from the next point along the route that the packet has arrived undamaged
data-manipulation language
a sublanguage of a database language providing facilities for storing, retrieving, updating, and deleting data records
date
a Unix and MS-DOS command for displaying the current date
DDP
a managed (or hosted) service that provides customers with online, scheduled, automated computer system data backup and self serve restoration
debug
to find and fix faults in a program or system
decipher
to change coded information into normal text
decision support system
system designed to aid managers in day-to-day operational decisions
decision table
a type of grid used in computer program design to show what actions should be taken by the program under different conditions
decision tree
an AI technique used in data mining that separates data into subsets then further divides the subsets into smaller subsets until the subsets are small enough to allow the mining process to find interesting patterns and relationships within the data
declaration statement
in C, the element of the program that introduces an entity, giving it a name and establishing its properties
decode
to decide what a program instruction means
decompress
to remove the compression, i.e. to expand to its original size
decrypt
to recover the original text from an encrypted message
dedicated keys
a common name for the keyboard keys like CTRL, CapsLock, Enter (or Return), Backspace, Delete
deep copy
a copy of the contents of a data structure, including all its substructures
deep web
the portion of content on the World Wide Web that is not indexed by standard search engines
defacing
a computer crime that involves changing the information shown on another persons website without permission
default
an initial setting, option, etc., that a computer uses if user does not choose a different one, and to which can be restored in case of malfunctioning
defragment
reorganize data stored on disc by putting files into contiguous order
denial of service attack
an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users
desktop
a personal computer that is designed to be used on an office desk
desktop application
a computer program designed to be used on a desktop computer
desktop
the main graphical user interface background screen that displays icons for other programs
destructor
in object-oriented programming, a method which is invoked when the object is destroyed
detonator
a device used to set off another process or event
developer
the person responsible for the program development process
development life cycle
the phases a software product goes through from when it is first thought of until it becomes obsolete, typically including: requirements analysis, design construction, testing (validation), installation, operation, maintenance and retirement
device control
the use of control characters to control external devices
device fingerprint
a compact summary of software and hardware settings collected from a remote computing device
device
a piece of hardware that is attached to a computer and is not part of the main central processor (CPU)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
a protocol for assigning an IP address to each computer automatically as it joins the network, for use as long as it remains connected, rather than assigning a permanent IP address in advance
dialling up
using a modem to connect a terminal or PC to a remote computer
dial-up networking
a communications system that allows computers to connect together using a telephone line
dictionary attack
a form of password cracking using a previously created list of the most possible combinations
differential backup
a type of backup that copies all selected files on a system that have been changed since the last time a full backup was carried out
digit
a number which has only one character: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, or 9
digital camera
an input device for taking pictures; it has an electronic lens and uses electronics for storing the images rather than chemical film
digital cash
electronic currency that is stored on electronically sensitive cards or exists in cyberspace and is used for making electronic purchases over the Internet
digital certificate
an electronic message used to show a transaction is trustworthy, containing information about the company processing the transaction including their public key and is electronically signed by a trusted issuer
digital copy
a commercially distributed computer file containing a media product such as a film or music album
digital currency
a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange using cryptography to secure the transactions and to control the creation of additional units
Digital Research disk operating system
a DOS-type operating system for IBM PC-compatible personal computers; alternative for MS-DOS by Microsoft
digital rights management
a system for protecting the copyrights of data circulated via the Internet or other digital media by enabling secure distribution and/or disabling illegal distribution of the data
digital signal
a wave form or signal whose voltage at any particular time will be at any one of a group of discrete values (generally a two-level signal)
digital subscriber line
a broadband communications system that allows digital signals to be transferred across an ordinary analogue telephone line
digital transmission
the sending of digital signals along a communications link
digital
of an electronic system that has only two states, e.g. off or on; using discrete digits to represent arithmetic numbers
digitize
convert analog signals to digital representation
Direct Memory Access
feature of modern computers that allows certain hardware subsystems within the computer to access system memory independently of the central processing unit
directX
an optional add-on animation and sound subsystem for Microsoft Windows, required by certain games and other software that needshigher graphics performance than can be obtained through normal operating system services
disk array
a linked collection of storage devices that work together to act like a much larger disk
disk directory
an index to the contents of a disk
disk drive
a storage device for reading from and writing to disks
disk enclosure
a specialized chassis designed to hold and power disk drives while providing a mechanism to allow them to communicate to one or more separate computers
disk error
a detected (or otherwise) error in the way that data is stored on the surface of a magnetic disk. Such errors are usually detected when reading from or writing to the disk
disk image
an exact copy of a computers hard drive which includes all the partition information, boot sectors, the file allocation table, operating system installation and application software; used to transfer a hard drives contents during a hardware upgrade, to restore a hard drives contents during disaster recovery or when a hard drive is erased, and to transfer the contents of a hard drive from one computer to another
disk operating system
the generic term for the operating system developed for IBM PCs and their clones
Distributed Denial of Service
an attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by flooding the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system, usually one or more web servers
distributed system
the organization of processing whereby each process is free to process local data. The processes exchange information with each other over a network.
divider
a vertical bar that divides a Windows Explorer window into two parts, where one part shows the drive folders and the other part shows the filenames of the files in the selected folder
DivX
a codec created by DivX, Inc.; it is one of several codecs commonly associated with , whereby audio and video multimedia are transferred to a hard disk and transcoded
Data Link Control
the second lowest layer in the OSI Reference Model, every network interface card (NIC) has an address or identifier (DLCI) that uniquely identifies the node on the network
Downloadable Content
additional content possible to be downloaded within a video game; it mostly contains extra maps, levels or special items
demilitarized zone
a computer or small subnetwork that sits between a trusted internal network, such as a corporate private LAN, and an untrusted external network, such as the public Internet
document image-processing
a system that takes scanned images and stores them on computer for access rather than filling the paper copies of the document
document processing
machine-processing, reading, sorting, etc. documents that are generally readable both by human and computers, e.g. bank cheques
document
produce the material that serves to describe a program and make it more readily understandable
domain name server
a network server computer used for operating and controlling the domain name system
domain name system
system of associating the name of a device on a network such as the Internet with its numerical address so that the name can be used by the user and the numerical address can be used by the network system
domain name
an identifier used on the Internet in place of the numerical Internet address, identifying the host, the type and the country code, e.g. holyrood.ed.ac.uk
donationware
software that is free to use, but encourages users to make grants to the developer
dot-matrix printer
a printer that prints by hammering pins an inked ribbon
double data rate
a type of memory that transfers data on both the up and down cycles of the control signal, making it faster than earlier types of memory
download
a process of copying a file from a server to a client computer in a network; to copy a file from a server to a client computer in a network
downstream
the signal path for receiving communications from a server to a client computer in a network
dots per inch
measure of graphical resolution, it refers to the number of dots (= small spots) of ink a printer can produce in each line measuring one inch, an image with more dots looks clearer
drag and drop
to move data from one location to another with a mouse, holding down the mouse moves the selected data, and releasing the mouse button drops the data in the new location
drag
hold down the mouse button, move the pointer to a new place and then release the button
driver
a systems program that controls a peripheral device
drop-down menu
a list of choices on a computer screen which is hidden until you choose to look at it
Document Type Definition
a set of markup declarations which define the structure and the legal elements and attributes of and XML document
desktop publishing
the design and production of publications using personal computers with graphics capability by combining text and artwork to produce documents properly formatted for print, Web, or mobile devices such as newsletters, brochures, books, Web pages, etc.
dump
in a system handling large numbers of users files stored on magnetic disk, to take a periodic record of the state of the disks that are made on magnetic tape in order to protect against accidental overwriting or mechanical failure of the disk
duplex
able to transfer data in both directions, i.e. can send and receive data