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object storage
a generic term that describes an approach to addressing and manipulating discrete units of storage called objects
an object-oriented programming module that has its own properties created by bundling data and program instructions together
object-oriented programming
a type of programming where programs are made from combinations of predefined modules that can be used over and over again
office application
a computer program or set of programs that are used in a typical office, e.g. a wordprocessor, spreadsheet and database
disconnected from a computer system or the Internet
OnLine Analytical Processing
decision support software that allows the user to quickly analyze information that has been summarized into multidimensional views and hierarchies
Open Source
part of a system of software development where anyone is free to take a copy of the source code and extend, develop or fix bugs in it
a specification of a universal API for generating graphics competing with and similar to Direct3D
operating system
the set of programs that control the basic functions of a computer and provide communication between the application programs and the hardware
optical character recognition
a process that enables a computer to scan and recognise printed characters using the reflection of light
optical disc
a computer disc that is read by a laser
optical drive
a type of storage device that reads or writes data using laser light, e.g. CD-ROM, DVD-RW
optical fiber
the medium associated with the transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic strand
optical fibre
a common name of glass fibre cable used in high speed networks, enabling data signals to be transmitted using laser light
Option ROM
firmware on adapter cards that control bootable peripherals
the processed data or signals that come out of a computer system
an arrangement in which one company provides services for another company that could also be or usually have been provided in-house; a trend that is becoming more common in information technology and other industries for services that have usually been regarded as intrinsic to managing a business
the practice of running a CPU at higher than its rated clock speed
packet sniffer
a computer program which intercepts packets of data transmitted over the Internet
a fixed size unit of data prepared for transmission across a network; messages are normally divided into such units before transmission
packet-switching network
a network that groups all transmitted data into suitably sized blocks, called packets
page-description language
a type of programming language that use tags to define the layout of a document, e.g. HTML is such a language and is used to design webpages
the process of separating print or digital content into discrete pages
a subsection of a graphical user interface window
paper jam
a situation in which paper cannot feed through a printer because it has gotten stuck, a common cause of it is that sheets of paper are stuck together when they enter the printer
information which is passed to a program subroutine
parity data
extra data bits added to the end of units of data before transmission and then checked and added after transmission to see if data has arrived accurately
analyse the syntax of an input string
a secret code used to control access to a network system
to insert a copy of data held in a computer’s memory at a chosen position
the original hardware implementation of the ATA hard disk interface, using parallel data transmission through a rectangular 40-pin connector, later expanded to 80 conductors by using the two sides of each hole separately
to insert programming code into a computer program to fix or modify it in some way
the part of a virus that carries out the threat such as displaying a slogan on the screen
a type of pay television service by which a subscriber of a television service provider can purchase events to view via private telecast
payroll package
a set of computer programs used for calculating pay cheques
a system designed to monetize online and other digital information by preventing visitors from accessing web sites and similar content providers without having a paid subscription
a computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer
PCI Express
an interface for connecting peripherals to the processor, faster than the standard PCI interface
a type of interface for connecting credit-sized electronic upgrade cards to portable computers
peer to peer
computer network in which each computer in the network can act as a client or server for the other computers in the network, allowing shared access to files and peripherals without the need for a central server
pen-based computer
a small computer that has a pen input device instead of a keyboard
a method of evaluating computer and network security by simulating an attack on a computer system or network from external and internal threats
the speed of a computer or computer system
a piece of equipment that is connected to the central processing unit of a computer system
personal computer
a computer designed to be used by one person at a time
personal digital assistant
a small handheld computer providing a variety of tools for organising work, e.g. a calendar, to do list, diary, address list, calculator, etc.
personal identification number
a unique number used by electronic systems to indicate who a person is
change, design or produce to meet someone's individual requirements
a mobile device with screen size typically from 5.3 to 6.9 inches designed to fill the gap between smartphone and tablet
pretending to be someone that can be trusted, in order to steal personal information such as passwords or credit card details
photon mapping
technique to simulate realistic lighting distribution
physical layer
the part of a network communications system that encodes the packets into the medium that will carry them and sends the packets along that medium
a set of very small low power wireless links consuming only picoamps of electricity that are set up between Bluetooth devices when they are within 10 metres of each other
a computer crime that involves using another person’s identification code or using that person’s files before he or she has logged off
PIN pad
an electronic device used in a debit, credit or smart card-based transaction to accept the cardholder’s secret four digit number
computer network administration utility used to test the reachability of a host on an IP network and to measure the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer
a technique used in advanced microprocessors where the microprocessor begins executing a second instruction before the first has been completed
the act of illegally copying computer programs, recordings, films, etc.
use a software that has been copied in breach of copyright
an individual dot on a computer screen, its colour and brightness are controlled by the computer
Platform as a Service
a category of cloud computing services that provides a computing platform and a solution stack as a service
a distinctive type of computer system that needs software to be written specifically for it, e.g. PC, Apple Mac, etc
computer printer for printing in wide-format
relating to a piece of electronic equipment that can be used as soon as it is connected to a computer
a hardware or software module that adds a specific feature or service to a larger system
a recorded programme that can be downloaded from the internet and listened to on an MP3 player
an arrow-shaped cursor
polygon mesh
a collection of vertices, edges and faces that defines the shape of an object in 3D computer graphics
a key feature of OOP programming by which different objects can receive the same instructions but deal with them in different ways
a function of web page which automatically runs a new window with determined content in Internet browser
port replicator
a device that connects to a portable computer to make it easier to connect peripheral devices
to convert for use in another operating system or computer platform
a computer that is small and light enough to be carried from place to place, usually can be powered by batteries
modifying code that runs on one hardware platform or operating system so that it will properly execute on another hardware platform or operating system
post office protocol
a message-retrieval protocol used by many mail clients to get messages from a server, allowing you only to download all messages in your mailbox at once; it works in pull mode, i.e. the receiving PC initiates the connection
to display a message in a computer newsgroup or bulletin board
power on self test
a function of the motherboards BIOS that checks your hardware to ensure that everything is present and functioning properly, before the BIOS begins the actual boot
a protocol used to establish a direct connection between two nodes
predicted frame
a type of image frame used in MPEG compression, storing the differences in the image compared to the previous frame
presentation layer
the part of a network communications system that ensures the message is transmitted in a language that the receiving computer can interpret
presentation program
a computer software package used to display information, normally in the form of a slide show
primary disk drive
the main disk drive in a computer, usually in a PC known as a C drive
printed circuit board
an electonic board that holds and connects the components of an elecronic circuit
a common output device used for printing the output of a computer on paper
a copy of information appearing on a computer screen that is printed on paper
private key
secret code known only to the owner that is used for encrypting and decrypting messages
procedural language
a computer programming language that enables programs to be written using sections of code known as procedures, where each procedure performs a specific task
the part of a computer that processes the data
a set od instructions written in a computer language that control the behaviour of a computer /to write a set of instructions for controlling a computer using a computer language
a person who writes computer programs
programming language
a computer language used for writing computer programs
an optical device for viewing fixed or moving image on the projection screen
proprietary software
computer software licensed under exclusive legal right of the copyright holder
a set of agreed standards
a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers
an old type of connection ports (6-pin) for connecting a keyboard and a mouse to the PC; developed by IBM in 1987
a way of writing a description of a computer program using a mixture of natural language and computer language code
the aggregate of the world’s circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication, it consists of telephone lines, fiber optic cables, microwave transmission links, cellular networks, communications satellites, and undersea telephone cables, all interconnected by switching centers, thus allowing any telephone in the world to communicate with any other
public domain
a condition in which there is no copyright on a work such as a computer program allowing it to be freely copied and used
public key
a secret code the owner makes available to others so that can encypt messages they are sending to the owner
public-key cryptography
a method of coding messages using public and private keys to prevent others from reading them
pull mode
a type of communication where the receiving computer initiates the connection
pull-down menu
a list of choices that appear below a menu title on a display screen when the user clicks on the menu title using a mouse
push operation
a communication where the sending computer initiates the connection