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3D graphics
the field of computer graphics concerned with generating and displaying three-dimensional objects in a two-dimensional space
3D modeling
a process of developing a mathematical representation of any three-dimensional surface or object via specialized software
3D printing
a process of making a three-dimensional solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model
3D rendering
the 3D computer graphics process of automatically converting 3D wire frame models into 2D images with 3D photorealistic effects
3D scanner
a device that analyzes a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and appearance
3G
the third generation of the Global System for Mobile communication standard. It is the standard for mobile users around the world
6to4
a tunneling mechanism used to transfer IPv6 packets over an IPv4 infrastructure
A/D converter
an electronic circuit that changes analog signals to digital signals
abandonware
discontinued video or computer games, often collected and played by computer game enthusiasts on refurbished systems or on PCs running emulator software
absolute path
a path to a file that begins with the drive identifier and root directory or with a network share and ends with the complete file name
abstract type
a type without instances or without definition
accelerated graphics port
high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a computer’s motherboard, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics
Accelerated Processing Unit
the electronic processor that combines CPU and GPU elements into a single architecture
access
connect to, or get information from, a system or a database
access control
a feature of a computer security system which prevents unauthorized users from accessing a system
access key
a key combination, such as ALT + F, that moves the focus to a menu, a command or a control, without using the mouse
access point
a wireless network device that connects a wireless network to a wired network
access privileges
the type of operations permitted a given user for a certain system resource on a network or a file server
access request
a user request for data from a database
access
connect to, or get (information) from, a system or a database
account
a registration for a user of a network system, used for controlling access to the system
accumulator
a register that holds the results of operations performed by the arithmetic portion of the CPU
acoustic coupler
a modem which converts digital signals from a computer into audible sound signals and vice versa, so that the former can be transmitted and received over telephone lines
active cell
the current cell where you enter information
active window
the window in a WIMP system that is currently being used, usually located on top of any other open windows
actuator
a mechanism that converts signal to mechanical movements
ad blocker
a software product that prevents advertisements from appearing with the content the user is intentionally viewing
ad hoc network
a type of peer to peer wireless network mode where wireless devices communicate with each other directly
adaptor board
a circuit board put in a spare slot in a computer to control an external device
address bus
the set of conductors that carry the memory addresses signals between different parts of a computer system
address prefix
text (string) of lengths from 0 to 152 bits, which is at the beginning of each address in the ATM network
address register
a register which stores an address in memory
address resolution protocol
a network layer protocol used to convert an IP address into a physical address
address
a location within the memory of a computer
ADSL
a form of DSL that has a different bandwidth for the upstream and the downstream
advanced audio distribution profile
a profile which defines the procedures for transmission of high-quality audio as mono or stereo via Bluetooth
adware
software devised to display advertisements; some includes spyware
agile software development
a set of principles for software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing cross-functional teams
AIO
a computer that houses every component within the same case as the monitor, except for peripheral components like the keyboard and mouse, for example Apple iMac
algorithm
a set of precise rules or instructions for solving a problem
algorithmic attack
a form of computer attack that targets a set of rules or calculations that a computer must folow to solve a problem
aliasing
in sound and image generation: the generation of a false frequency along with the correct one when doing frequency sampling; for images produces a jagged edge or stair-step effect; for sound it produces a buzz
alignment
when two or more things are positioned in a straight line or parallel to each other
all routes explorer
a special frame sent by the source at all possible routing paths
alphanumeric keys
keys which represent letters and numbers, arranged as on a typewriter
alphanumeric
used to describe data that contains numbers and letters
ALT text caption
text displayed in a webpage as an alternative to a graphic when the facility for displaying graphics is not available or is switched off
ALU
a digital circuit performing integer arithmetic and logical operations
ambient occlusion
in computer graphics: a method to approximate how bright light should be shining on any specific part of a surface, based on the light and it’s environment
amplifier
electronic device that increases the power of a signal
analog
describing a smoothly varying signal that has no discontinuities and can take any value between a maximum and a minimum
analogue-digital conversion
electronic process in which a continuously variable (analog) signal is changed, into a multi-level (digital) signal
android
a device designed to look and act like a human or an operating system based on the Linux kernel dedicated for mobile devices
animation
a rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions to create an illusion of movement
animator
someone who makes animated films, drawings, puppets or models
anorak
a slang term for an eccentric socially inept person with little or no fashion sense and having an obsessive interest in a hobby or subject
aerial
a device that enables signals to be detected and transmitted in air
antialiasing
the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts
anti-glare shield
a protective screen over the front of a computer screen to reduce the amount of reflected light
anti-static
preventing the buildup of static electricity
anti-virus
a computer program or set of programs used to detect, identify and remove viruses from a computer system
Access Point Name
a configurable network identifier used by a mobile device when connecting to a GSM carrier
applet
a very small self-contained computer program
application launcher
a computer program that helps a user to locate and start other computer programs
application layer
the only part of a network communications process that a user sees; it prepares a message for sending over a network by converting it from human-readable form into bits and attaching a header identifying the sending and receiving computers
application port
a path available for a particular type of application data to enter or leave a network system
application service provider
a company that makes applications programs available over the Internet usually charging a fee for access to programs
application-programming interface
a set of programming instructions and standards for accessing a Web based software application or Web tool
applications programmer
a person who writes applications programs using a computer language
architecture
the general specification of a system
archive bit
a digital bit stored with a file indicating if the file has been backed up since it was last edited
areal density
the data capacity of a storage device measured in bits per square inch
arpanet
one of the world’s first operational packet switching networks, the first network to implement TCP/IP, and the progenitor of what was to become the global Internet
artificial intelligence
an area of computing concerned with developing computer programs that perform tasks that can normally only be done using human mind and reasoning
ASCII
a code for representing 128 English characters as numbers, with each letter assigned a number from 0 to 127
assembler
a computer program that changes basic computer instructions into a language that the computer can understand and use to operate
assembly language
a low-level computer language that uses mnemonics rather than only numbers making it easier than machine code for humans to read and write
Assisted GPS
a system which can, under certain conditions, improve the startup performance, or time-to-first-fix (TTFF) of a GPS satellite-based positioning system
asymmetric
having a different signal bandwidth in each direction, i.e. the bandwidth for sending is different from the bandwidth for receiving
asynchronous transfer mode
a method of transferring fixed size data packets across a network, suitable for transferring video, audio and computer data
asynchronous
not synchronised, i.e. occurring at irregular intervals
ATM
the type of machine used by banks for enabling customers to withdraw money from their bank accounts
audio board
a computer expansion board that allows sound to be recorded and played back by the computer
audio note
in multimedia, a digitized audio message that can be attached to text or graphics
audio
connected with sound and the recording and broadcasting of sound
authentication
a process that checks the identity of a user or an object
auto numbering
a feature that automatically numbers diagrams, paragraphs, etc., in a document
auto-kerning
a word-processing feature that automatically adjusts the space between the characters of a typeface to give the best-looking fit
automate
use automatic equipment and machines to perform an activity previously done by people
automatic document feeder
a feature used in copiers and scanners to feed pages into the machine without manually placing them
automaton
a machine capable of operating independently, such as a clothes drier
autonomous system
a group of networks under mutual administration that share the same routing methodology
autorun
a computer function which automatically executes a command when removable media or optical discs are inserted
avatar
a graphical icon that represents a real person in a cyberspace system