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Level 4

Earth Science


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Kinetic Molecular Theory
All matter is made up of moving particles
Energy
The ability to do work
Kinetic Energy
Energy due to motion
Potential Energy
Energy due to position (distance between particles)
Thermal Energy
Total energy of all particles. Kinetic + Potential energy
Temperature
measure of the average kinetic energy
Heat
Total amount of thermal energy
Conduction
Transfer of heat through contact (touching)
Convection
Transfer of heat through the movement of fluids (liquids or gases)
Radiation
The transfer of energy by waves
Crust
Outer solid rock layer
Mantle
Thickest layer of the earth. Mostly solid (except the upper mantle – fluid like thick toothpaste)
Outer Core
Outside layer of Earth’s core. Is liquid and made of nickel and iron.
Inner Core
Inside of Earth’s core. Solid and made mostly of iron.
Tectonic Plate
Huge pieces of rock that make up the lithosphere and float on the asthenosphere.
Lithosphere
Earths crust + upper mantel.
Asthenosphere
Fluid Layer of the upper mantel
Mantle Convection
How tectonic plates move.
Pangea
The way the continents are thought to have been arranged/joined about 200-300 million years ago.
Boundaries
Area between two things
Converging Boundaries
When two tectonic plates collide (come together)
Diverging Boundaries
When two tectonic plates separate (move apart)
Transform Boundaries
When two tectonic plates slide side by side
Subduct
To go under
Trench
Deep underwater valley
Rift
When two land plates separate
Volcanoes
Formed when an ocean plate and a land plate collide
Mountain
Formed when two tectonic plates collide
Earthquake
Happens when two tectonic plates slide side-by-side