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Level 1

Chemistry


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atom
the smallest particle of an element
element
substance that cannot be broken down further
compound
composed of two or more atoms
sub-atomic particles
proton(s), neutron(s) and electron(s) are all this
proton
particle with a positive charge
neutron
particle with a neutral (no) charge
nucleus
protons and neutrons are together in this
electron
particle with a negative charge
charge
tells us which particles attract or repel each other
shell
orbit an electron follows around the nucleus of an atom.
valence electron
an electron which moves around the outside shell of an atom
atomic number
number of protons defines this
periodic table
chart of the chemical elements in order
family
also known as group, it helps us find the number of valence electrons
period
it helps us find the number of shells
alkali metals
group that has one valence electron
alkaline earth metals
group that has two valence electrons
halogens
group that has seven valence electrons
noble gas
elements with a full valence shell
metal
most elements that are on the left side of the periodic table
non metal
most elements that are on the right side of the periodic table
bohr diagram
that shows the protons, neutrons, and electrons of an atom
lewis diagram
that shows the valence electrons of an atom
bond
to join or be joined
unreactive
does not form bonds with other elements
transfer
to move from one place to another
ion
an atom that gave or took electron(s)
cation
an atom that gave electron(s)
anion
an atom that took electron(s)
ionic bond
between a metal and non-metal
covalent bond
between two non-metals
aqueous
any liquid based mostly on water
acids
release hydrogen ions (H) when they are added to water
bases
release hydroxide ions (OH) when they are added to water
ph scale
used to measure how acidic or basic a liquid is
neutral
ph of 7; is not acidic or basic