Level 7 Level 9
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Relating to schools, colleges and universities, or connected with studying and thinking.
To think of ideas (usually quickly) about a topic (often noting these down). This is often done as preparation before writing or speaking.
To put things into the group (category) to which they belong, e.g. fruit and vegetables.
To repeat a phrase, sentence, rhyme, verse, poem or song, usually with others, in a regular rhythm.
Tthe teacher says a word or sentence and the learners repeat it together as a class.
A question which leads to a yes/no answer or another very short response, e.g. Did you come to school by bus? Yes. What did you have for breakfast? Toast.
A task-type in which learners read a text with missing words and try to work out what the missing words are. The missing words are removed regularly from the text, e.g. every seventh word. It is used for testing reading ability or general language use.
A classroom activity in which learners need to talk or write to one another to complete the activity.
Controlled practice, restricted practice
When learners use the target language repeatedly and productively in situations in which they have little or no choice of what language they use. The teacher and learners focus on accurate use of the target language.
A technique teachers use for encouraging learners to practise language. It involves guided repetition or practice.
An activity which gives learners further or extended practice of the target language or the topic of the lesson or additional skills work.
An activity in which learners fill in spaces or gaps in sentences or texts. This is often used for restricted practice or for focusing on a specific language point.
A piece of writing that learners produce after the teacher has helped them to prepare for it by, e.g. giving the learners a plan to follow, or ideas for the type of language to use.
The teacher says a word or sentence and one learner repeats it.
A classroom activity in which learners work in pairs or groups. Learners are given a task, but they are given different information and, to complete the task, they have to find out the missing information from each other.
A word in which the letters are not in the correct order. The learners put the letters into the correct order to make a word.
A sentence in which the words are not in the correct order. The learners put the words into the correct order to make a sentence.
A text in which the paragraphs or sentences are not in the correct order. The learners put the paragraphs into the correct order to make a logical piece of text.
A series of pictures that are not in thecorrect order. The learners put the pictures into the correct order.
To match the name of an object to the object.
Less controlled, freer practice
When learners use the target language but have more choice of what they say and what language they use.
A question which can lead to a long response, e.g. How did you spend last weekend? Why do you think many people prefer to drive rather than use public transport?
Open-ended (task, questions)
A task or question that does not have a right or wrong answer, but which allows learners to offer their own opinions and ideas or to respond creatively, e.g. Why do you think the writer likes living in Paris?
Stories that are shown in pictures instead of words.
Learners work in pairs or groups to find the solution to a problem. Problem-solving activities usually help to develop oral fluency.
An activity which focuses on completing an extended task or tasks on a specific topic. Learners may work in groups to create something such as a class magazine. Learners sometimes do some work by themselves, sometimes outside the classroom.
Rank ordering, prioritising
Putting things in order of importance. In the classroom, a prioritising or rank ordering activity is a communicative activity in which learners are given a list of things to put in order of importance. It involves discussion, agreeing/disagreeing and negotiating.
When a learner or teacher looks again at language or skills that have already been taught in order to remember this language better. Teachers often do this in the classroom to help learners to prepare for a test.
A classroom activity in which learners are given roles to act out in a given situation, e.g. a job interview role-play where one learner would be the interviewer and the other learner would be the interviewee. Role-plays are usually done in pairs or groups.
An answer to a problem.
The teacher provides a sentence and a different word or phrase which the learner must use (or substitute) in exactly the same structure, e.g. Teacher: I bought a book. Pen. Learner: I bought a pen.
A grid giving a choice of grammatical forms: I/you/we/they go, he/she/it goes
Learners find out information from others by asking questions or using questionnaires in order to practise speaking skills and/or specific language.
To change one thing for another, e.g. in class a teacher could ask learners to swap partners so that they can work with someone different.
1. The language which is the focus of the lesson or a part of the lesson. It could be grammar, lexis, functions or pronunciation. 2. The language being studied, L2.
An activity that learners complete. For example, problem-solving activities or information-gap activities. It usually focuses on communication.
A set of questions that are all of one kind, e.g. multiple choice, gap-fill, matching.
the teacher says a word or a sentence and the learner answers by changing the sentence into a new grammatical structure, e.g. Teacher: I bought a pen. Didn't. Learner: I didn't buy a pen.
To form a mental picture of something.
A classroom activity where learners close their eyes and create mental images.
Word map, mind map
A diagram which is used to make a visual record of vocabulary on the same topic, e.g. transport - car, bus, plane, train