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M1. Approaches, techniques, introd. activities

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Activity-based learning
A way of learning by doing activities. The rules of language used in the activity are looked at either after the activity or not at all.
Communicative approach
A way of teaching and practising language which is based on the principle that learning a language successfully involves communication rather than just memorising a series of rules. Teachers try to focus on meaningful communication, rather than focusing on accuracy and correcting mistakes.
Idea or meaning.
Concept checking question (CCQ)
A question asked by the teacher to make sure that a learner has understood the meaning of new language, e.g. the new language structure - used to - He used to live in Paris. A question - Does he live in Paris now? Answer - No.
Concept checking
a technique of asking concept questions or using other techniques to check that learners have understood a new structure or item of lexis.
Content-based learning
An approach to teaching that focuses on teaching content, e.g. a school subject in the second language. It aims to develop learners' ability in both the content subject and the language.
Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)
An approach in which a foreign language is used as a tool in the learning of a non-language subject in which both have a joint role.
To put new language into a situation that shows what it means.
An explanation of the meaning of a word, e.g. in a dictionary.
Eclectic approach
An approach to language teaching in which the teacher uses techniques and activities taken from different methods together in one lesson, e.g. a task followed by drilling.
When a teacher thinks that some learners will know a piece of language or some information, rather than giving the class the information, he/she asks targeted questions or gives clues to get learners to give the information.
1. A short activity between the main stages of a lesson used for reasons such as time management or to provide a change of pace etc. 2. Words/sounds used to avoid pauses when speaking, e.g. erm, ah, well
Functional Approach
A way of teaching which uses a syllabus based on functions.
A movement with part of the body, e.g. hand, head, which is used to convey meaning.
Grammar-Translation method
A way of teaching in which learners study grammar and translate words and texts into their own language or the target language. They do not practise communication and there is little focus on speaking. A teacher presents a grammar rule and vocabulary lists and then learners translate a written text from their own language into the second language or vice versa.
Guided discovery
A way of teaching in which a teacher provides examples of the target language and then guides the learners to work out the language rules for themselves.
An introductory activity that a teacher uses at the start of a new course so that learners can get to know each other.
Information which is given to learners by the teacher, e.g. through a text or via electronic means.
Illustrate meaning
To show what something means.
Introductory activity
An activity which takes place at the beginning of a lesson. Introductory activities often include warmers and lead-ins.
Lexical Approach
A way of teaching language that focuses on lexical items or chunks such as words, multi-word units, collocations and fixed expressions rather than grammatical structures.
1. something which shows the meaning of language. 2. an activity can be meaningful if it is useful for learners in the real world outside the classroom or is relevant to them.
Methods or procedures used in a particular activity, e.g. teaching.
Mime noun + verb
Body movements used to convey meaning without using words.
1. When the teacher introduces new language usually by focusing on it formally, often by using the board and speaking to the whole class. 2. When a learner or learners gives a talk to their class or group.
Presentation, Practice and Production (PPP)
A way of teaching new language in which the teacher presents the language, gets learners to practise it in exercises or other controlled practice activities and then asks learners to use or produce the same language in a communicative and less controlled way.
Situational presentation
A way of presenting new language through a simple story or situation. The teacher may use pictures or other aids to help him/her create the situation.
Structural Approach
A way of teaching which uses a syllabus based on grammatical structures. The order in which the language is presented is usually based on how difficult it is thought to be.
Task-based Learning (TBL)
A way of teaching in which the teacher gives learners meaningful tasks to do. After this the teacher may ask learners to think about the language they used while doing the tasks, but the main focus for learners is on the task itself. Project work is often task-based.
Teaching strategy
A procedure or technique used by a teacher in the classroom to encourage learning, e.g. a teacher may choose to give thinking time to learners before they speak.
A way of achieving a purpose, e.g. drilling is an example of a teaching technique, which is used to help learners to pronounce particular language.
A way of teaching new language. The teacher asks learners to do a task to see how well they know a certain piece of language The teacher then presents the new language to the learners, then asks the learners to do another task using the new language correctly.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
A way of teaching in which the teacher presents language items in instructions and the learners have to do exactly what the teacher tells them, e.g. Open the window! Stand up!
An activity that a teacher uses at the beginning of a lesson to give the class more energy.