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Relating to complex thoughts and ideas rather than simple, basic, concrete concepts.
The use of correct forms of grammar, vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation. Teachers and learners typically focus on using and producing language, spelling correctly.
When ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly, and so are logical and make sense to the listener or reader.
The way spoken or written texts are joined together with logical grammar or lexis, e.g. conjunctions (Firstly, secondly), lexical sets, referring words (it, them, this).
A feature in a text, e.g. use of topic-related vocabulary throughout a text, of sequencing words (then, next, after that etc.), of referencing words (pronouns - he, him, etc.), of conjunctions (however, although etc.).
Complicated, not simple.
Understanding a spoken or written text.
Relating to real or specific ideas or concepts. e.g. words for real objects like clothes, food, animals that can be seen or touched.
1. The situation in which language is used or presented. 2. The words or phrases before or after a word in discourse which help someone to understand that word.
Spoken or written language in texts or groups of sentences.
Deduce meaning from context
To guess the meaning of an unknown word by using the information in a situation and/or around the word to help, e.g. I drove my van to the town centre and parked it in the central car park. Van must be some kind of vehicle because you drive it and park it.
To help learners to improve their listening, reading, writing and speaking ability.
It is a piece of writing that is not yet finished, and may be changed. That is, they write it for the first time but not exactly as it will be when it is finished.
To shorten or change or correct the words or content of some parts of a written text to make it clearer or easier to understand.
Listening to or reading long pieces of text, such as stories or newspapers, often for pleasure.
The process in which incorrect language becomes a habit and cannot easily be corrected.
The error which was not corrected early and it has become habitual
Infer attitude, feeling, mood
To decide how a writer or speaker feels about something from the way that they speak or write, rather than from what they openly say.
When a lesson combines work on reading, writing, listening and speaking.
Reading or listening which is focused on how language is used in a text. This is how the term is used in TKT.
It is ‘two-way communication' between listener and speaker, or reader and text.
the ways used, especially in speaking, to keep people involved and interested in what is said or to keep communication going, e.g. eye contact, use of gestures, functions such as repeating, asking for clarification.
A word in a piece of discourse or text, which is important for understanding the text.
The way in which a text is organised and presented on a page.
Listen/read for detail
To listen to or read a text in order to understand most of what it says or particular details.
Listen/read for gist
To understand the general meaning of a text, without paying attention to specific details.
Listen/read for mood
To read or listen to a text in order to identify the feelings of the writer or speaker.
The use of connected speech at a natural speed with little hesitation, repetition or self-correction.
It is a section in a longer piece of writing such as an essay. It starts on a new line and usually contains a single new idea.
To say or write something that has been read or heard using different words.
Learners try to imagine what the topic will be or what they are going to read about or listen to.
To actively think about new information in order to understand it completely and be able to use it in future.
An approach to writing, which thinks of writing as a process which includes different stages of writing such as planning, drafting, re-drafting, editing, proofreading
An approach to writing which involves analysing and then reproducing models of particular text types.
When learners produce language, e.g. speaking and writing
To read a text in order to check whether there are any mistakes in spelling, grammar, punctuation etc.
When a piece of writing is changed with the intention of improving it.
When learners do not have to produce language; e.g. listening and reading
Relevance noun, relevant adjective
The degree to which something is related to or useful in a situation.
To read a text quickly to get a general idea of what it is about.
a part of the main skill, e.g. identifying word stress (listening).
Summary noun, summarise verb
To take out the main points of a long text, and rewrite or retell them in a short, clear way.
The way a text is organised. For example, an essay typically has an introduction, a main section and a conclusion.
Texts that have specific features (layout, use of language, etc.) that make them part of a recognisable type of text, e.g. letters, emails, news reports.
Theme noun, thematic adjective
The main subject of a conversation, a text or a lesson.
The subject of a text or lesson.
A sentence that gives the main point or subject of a paragraph. This is usually the opening sentence in a paragraph.
A particular form of something in which some details are different from an earlier or later form of it.