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Module 1. Phonology

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Connected speech
Spoken language in which the words join to form a connected stream of sounds and some sounds in words may be left out or may be pronounced in a weak way, e.g. Is he busy /izi:bizi: /.
A sound in which the air is partly blocked by the lips, tongue, teeth etc. Any letter of the English alphabet which represents these sounds, e.g. d /d/, c /k/.
To compare the differences between two things.
Contrastive stress
It is used to express an unusual or emphatic meaning in a sentence. It involves stressing the important word according to the different meanings, e.g. It was my AUNT who bought the car (not my uncle) or My aunt bought the CAKE (not the biscuits)!
A shorter form of a group of words, which usually occurs in auxiliary verbs, e.g. you have = you've; it is = it's.
A vowel combination which is pronounced by moving from one vowel to another, e.g. / ai / as in my
Discriminate, distinguish
To identify the difference between two or more things, e.g. sound discrimination is hearing the differences between sounds, particularly minimal pairs, e.g. not/lot.
When special force or attention is given to a word or information because it is important, e.g. I want to start the lesson at SIX o'clock not seven o'clock.
Feature (e.g. of connected speech)
Something is an interesting or important part or characteristic of it
Identify verb
To recognise something.
The way the level of a speaker's voice changes, to show meaning such as how they feel about something, e.g. if they are angry or pleased or to make speech sound polite in English.
The way different sounds can link into each other in connected speech, e.g. it’s a good day - / ltsagudei/.
Minimal pair
Two words which are different from each other by only one meaningful sound, e.g. hit / hit/; heat /hit /.
The smallest sound unit which can make a difference to meaning e.g. /p/ in pan, /b/ in ban.
Primary, main stress
e.g. DIFFicult, indiVIDual
It is the way that some words in a sentence are emphasised or stressed to produce a regular pattern, e.g. If I were YOU, I'd GO by BUS
The / ə / sound which is a feature of weak forms, e.g. / kən / in I can play tennis.
Secondary stress
It is less strong than the primary
Sentence stress
Refers to the way some words (usually information-carrying) in a sentence are stressed.
Strong form
If a word is important, this form is used, and the pronunciation changes, e.g. I can /kən/ SPEAK a little Spanish. I CAN /kaen/ speak a little Spanishin in an emergency.
A part of a word that usually contains a single vowel sound.
Unvoiced sound
No movement or vibration can be felt in the throat.
Voiced sound
Movement or vibration can be felt in the throat.
A sound in which the air is not blocked by the tongue, lips, teeth etc. Movement or vibration is felt in the throat because the voice is used. The letters a, e, i, o, u and sometimes y are used to represent these sounds.
Weak form
If a word is unstressed, this form of vowels may be used, e.g. I can (/ kən /) speak Italian, French, English and Spanish. The sound / ə / is also called schwa.
Word boundary
Where one word ends and the next one begins, especially in connected speech.
Word stress
is the pronunciation of a syllable with more force or emphasis than the surrounding syllables which are said to be unstressed, e.g. umbrella / Am'brela /