Level 2
Level 1

Module 1. Grammar


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Active voice
a sentence in which the subject of the verb usually does or causes the action, e.g. The car hit the tree.
Adjective
a part of speech that describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun, e.g. a cold day.
Adverb
a part of speech that describes or gives more information about how, when, where, or to what degree etc something is done, e.g. he worked quickly and well.
Apostrophe
A punctuation mark ('). The ' is added to a singular noun before an s to show that something belongs to someone, e.g. John's house.
Article
a word used before nouns, could be definite, indefinite and zero
Aspect
A way of looking at verb forms not purely in relation to time. It relates to the type of event, e.g. whether it is long or short, whether it is complete or not, whether it is repetitive or not, whether it is connected to the time of speaking or not.
Continuous aspect
suggests that something is happening temporarily
Perfect aspect
suggests that something is has already happened
‘At' symbol
A punctuation mark (@) used instead of ‘at' in email addresses, e.g. john@yahoo.com
Auxiliary verb
a verb used with other verbs to make questions, negatives, tenses, etc e.g. be, do, have.
Base form of a verb
the infinitive form of a verb without ‘to', e.g. go.
Capital letter
A letter of the form and size used at the beginning of a sentence or a name, e.g. They went to Spain last year.
Clause
A sentence or a part of a sentence which generally consists of a subject and a finite verb relating to the subject and any other elements, e.g. object
Main clause
When the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking.
Subordinate clause
When the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking.
Relative clause
The learners who were sitting near the front stood up.
Collective noun
a noun that refers to a group of people or things, e.g. the police, the government.
Comma
A punctuation mark (,) used to separate items in a list or to show where there is a pause in a sentence, e.g. I bought some apples, oranges, bananas and lemons. When I went to the market, I met my friend.
Comparative adjective
A word which compares two things, e.g. He is taller than she is.
Complex sentence
A sentence containing a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
Compound noun
A combination of two or more words, which are used as a single word, e.g. a flower shop, a headache.
Conditional (forms)
A verb form that refers to a possible or imagined situation
First conditional
refers to present or future possible or likely situations, e.g. I will come if I can.
Second conditional
refers to present or future situations which the speaker thinks are impossible or unlikely, e.g. I would go if they asked me.
Third conditional
refers to past situations that cannot be changed, e.g. I would have seen her if I had arrived earlier (but I didn't so I couldn't).
Mixed conditional
is used when the speaker wants to refer to different time frames in one sentence, e.g. If I'd arrived on time, I wouldn't have to wait now. If I'd arrived refers to the past and I wouldn't have to wait refers to the present.
Conjunction
a word which is used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences, e.g. I like tea but I don't like coffee because it's too strong for me.
Countable noun
A part of speech that has a singular and plural form, e.g. book - books.
Demonstrative adjective
A word which shows whether something is near or far from the speaker, e.g. this (near) book, that (far) book.
Demonstrative pronoun
А word which refers to a noun (phrase) and shows whether it is near or far from the speaker, e.g. this, that, these, those.
Dependent preposition
a word that is always used with a particular noun, verb or adjective before another word, e.g. interested in, depend on, bored with.
Determiner
A word which is used to make clear which noun is referred to, or to give information about quantity, and includes words such as the, a, this, that, my, some, e.g. That car is mine.
Direct speech, question
The actual words someone says, e.g. He said, ‘My name is Ron.', ‘What do you mean, Sue?', asked Peter.
Exclamation mark
A punctuation mark (!) written after an exclamation, e.g. Be careful!
Exponent
An example of a grammar point, function or lexical set.
Full stop
A punctuation mark (.) used at the end of a sentence, e.g. I like chocolate.
Future with going to
I'm going to visit my aunt on Sunday. It's going to rain.
Future with present continuous
He is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow.
Future with present simple
The plane leaves at 9.00 next Saturday.
Gerund, -ing form
A form of a verb functioning as a noun, which ends in -ing, e.g. I hate shopping.
Imperative
The form of a verb that gives an order or instruction, e.g. Turn to page 10.
Infinitive
The infinitive form is the base form of a verb with ‘to'. It is used after another verb, after an adjective or noun or as the subject or object of a sentence, e.g. 'I want to study.', ‘It's difficult to understand.'
-ing/-ed adjective
a word which describes things or feelings. e.g. The book is very interesting. I am very interested in the book.
Interrogative
A question form.
Irregular verb
a verb which has its own way of forming the past simple and past participle, e.g. go went (past simple) gone (past participle).
Modal verb
a verb used with other verbs to show ideas such as ability or obligation or possibility. They include can, must, will, should, e.g. I can speak French, but I should study even harder.
Object
This is a noun or phrase that describes the thing or person that is affected by the action of a verb, e.g. I saw Mary in the classroom.
An indirect object
an object affected by a verb but not directly acted on, e.g. He gave the book to me.
Participle (past and present)
ed and -ing forms of the verb which are often used to make tenses or adjectives, e.g. an interesting film ; I haven't seen him today.
Passive voice
Something is done to or happens to the subject of the verb, e.g. The tree was hit by the car.
Past perfect continuous, progressive
I had been studying for three hours so I felt tired.
Past perfect simple
After I had phoned Mary, I went out.
First person
the person speaking, e.g. I, we.
Third person
the person spoken about, e.g. he, she, they.
Phonology
The study of sounds in a language or languages.
Phrase
A group of words often without a finite verb that do not form a sentence, e.g. the green car, on Friday morning are phrases.
Plural noun
A word which is more than one person, place or thing and can be regular or irregular, e.g. boys, women.
Possessive adjective
A word which shows who something belongs to, e.g. my, our.
Possessive pronoun
A word which is used to replace a noun and shows something belongs to someone, e.g. the house is mine.
Possessive ‘s' and whose
Ways of showing or asking who something belongs to, e.g. ‘Whose book is it?' ‘It's Sue's'.
Preposition
A word used before a noun, pronoun or gerund to connect it to another word, e.g. He was in the garden.
Present continuous, progressive for future
He is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow.
Present perfect simple
I have known him for a long time.
Proper noun
A word which is the name of a person or place, e.g. Robert, London.
Question mark
A punctuation mark is used in writing after a question, e.g. How are you?
Question tag
A phrase that is added to the end of a sentence to make it a question, or to check that someone agrees with the statement just made, e.g. It's very cold, isn't it?
Reflexive pronoun
A word which is used when the object of a sentence refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the sentence, e.g. He cut himself.
Regular verb
A word which changes its forms by adding -ed in the past simple and past participle, e.g. walk walked.
Relative pronoun
A word which introduces a relative clause, e.g. the book which I'm reading is interesting.
Reporting verb
A word such as tell, advise, suggest used in indirect, reported speech to report what someone has said, e.g. Jane advised John to study harder.
Speech marks
Punctuation marks which are written before and after a word or a sentence to show that it is what someone said, e.g. John said “Hello, Sarah”.
Subject-verb agreement
When the form of the verb matches the person doing the action of the verb, e.g. I walk, he walks. If a learner writes I walks, then it is wrong because there is no subject-verb agreement.
Tense
A form of the verb that shows whether something happens in the past, present or future.
Transitive
Is used to describe a verb which takes a direct object, e.g. She wrote a letter.
Used to
A structure that shows something happened in the past but does not happen now
Verb pattern
The form of the words following the verb, e.g. He advised me to get there early. (advise + object pronoun + to + base form).
Wh- question
A type of question that starts with a wh- word and expects information in reply; not just yes or no, e.g. Where do you live? I live in France.