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Sports psychology (skill, motivation, guidance etc


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Skill
A learnt action with the intention of achieving certain results.
Ability
Something that is inherited from your parents.
Open skills
Skills that can be affected by changes in the environment or other athletes.
Closed skills
Skills that are not effected by the environment and are the same each time.
Self paced skills
The skill is started when the athlete decides.
Externally paced skills
The skill is started in relation to an external factor eg by an opponent.
Gross skills
These involve large movements with big muscle groups.
Fine skills
Small movements involving small muscle groups.
Performance goals
These focus on improving the performers performance and can often focus on improving personal bests. Eg Aiming for a better start in the 100m sprint.
Outcome goals
These focus on the end result. Eg To win a football match.
Visual guidance
Guidance that you can see, for example a demonstration.
Verbal guidance
Guidance that is provided by another person speaking to you.
Manual guidance
Physically moving the performer. For example the coach supporting the movement through physically touching the performer.
Mechanical guidance
Using mechanical aids to assist a performer, for example using a float in swimming.
Intrinsic feedback
Feedback that comes from within the performer. Usually you need to be more experienced to use this well.
Extrinsic feedback
Feedback you receive from other like a coach.
Knowledge of results
Feedback about the outcome. eg scoring a goal.
Knowledge of performance
Feedback about the quality of performance. Eg using good technique during a smash shot.
Arousal
Is a physical and mental state of alertness/excitement varying from deep sleep to intense excitement.
Deep breathing
A technique involving exaggerated breaths in and out to control arousal.
Mental rehearsal
A mental technique involving the performer picturing themsleves performing a skill perfectly before doing it for real.
Self talk
A mental technique where the performer talks to themself in order to reassure themselves before performance.
Extrovert
A personality type characterised by being outgoing, talkative and is associated with team sports players.
Introvert
A personality type characterised by being quiet, passive and shy and is associated with individual sports.