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Level 4

Levers, planes and axis, Mechanical advantage

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First Class Lever
Found at the elbow joint, where the triceps cause extension of the lower arm.
The part of a lever that pivots (joints are fulcrums in a lever).
Load (resistance)
The load to be moved by a lever system.
The force applied to move the load (resistance).
Second class lever
Found at the ankle, where the gastrocnemius causes plantar flexion.
Third class lever
The majority of the body's joints act as a third class lever, eg the biceps causing flexion at the elbow.
Mechanical advantage
effort arm divided by load arm.
Isotonic contractions
Muscle action where the muscle changes length. (Causes movement).
Isometric contraction
Muscle action where the muscle stays the same length. (Used in balances).
Sagittal plane and transverse axis
This the plane and axis used for forward and backward movements- direction for flexion and extension.
Frontal plane and sagittal axis
The plane and axis for side to side movements- direction needed for abduction and adduction.
Transverse plane and longitudinal axis
The plane and axis for rotating movements- direction for rotation and spins.