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Level 3

The Cardio-respiratory system


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Trachea
Carries air from the mouth and nose to the lungs
Bronchi
Carries air from the trachea into the lungs
Bronchioles
Carry air from the bronchi to the alveoli
Alveoli
Tiny air sacks found in the lungs which allow gaseous exchange to take place.
Gaseous Exchange
The process in which cardon dioxide and oxygen move from a high concentration to a low concentration by diffusion.
Inspiration
The intake of air into the lungs
Expiration
The expulsion of air from the lungs.
Tidal volume
The volume of air breathed in and out during a normal breath at rest.
Expiratory reserve volume
The additional air that can be forcibly exhaled during a forceful breath out.
Inspiratory reserve volume
The additional air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal breath.
Residual volume
The volume of air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration.
Artery
The blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Vein
The blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart.
Capillaries
Tiny blood vessels that allow gaseous exchange to happen.
Vasoconstriction
Reducing the diameter of small arteries to reduce blood flow.
Vasodilation
Increasing the diameter of small arteries to increase blood flow to the tissues.
Cardiac output
The volume of blood that the heart is able to pump out in litres per minute
Aerobic exercise
Exercise with oxygen at a low to modertate intensity for a prolonged period of time.
Anaerobic exercise
Exercise without oxygen at a high intensity for a short period of time.
Lactic Acid
Waste product from anaerobic exercise.
Excess post oxygen consumption (EPOC)
Increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous exercise.
Delayed onset of muscle soreness
The pain and stiffness felt in the days after strenuous exercise.
Cramp
The involuntary contraction of a muscle.