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Muscles, bones and Movement


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Synovial Fluid
Produced by the synovial membrane to lubricate the joint.
Cartilage
Covers the ends of bones and acts as a cushion
Joint Capsule
Tough fibrous tissue- surrounds the synovial joint.
Ligaments
Join bone to bone.
Tendons
Join muscle to bone.
Bursae
Fluid-filled bag that helps reduce friction in a joint.
Flexion
Bending/decreasing the angle at a joint.
Extension
Straightening/increasing the angle at a joint.
Abduction
Moving the limbs away from the midline of the body.
Adduction
Moving the limbs towards the midline of the body.
Rotation
Moving a limb in a circular movement.
Plantar Flexion
Movement at the ankle where the toes are pointed to the ground.
Dorsi Flexion
Movement at the ankle where the toes are pulled upwards towards the knee.
Concentric contraction
Isotonic contraction where the muscle shortens.
Eccentric contraction
Isotonic contraction where the muscle lengthens- used to control downward movements.
Isotonic contractions
Muscle action where the muscle changes length. (Causes movement).
Isometric contraction
Muscle action where the muscle stays the same length. (Used in balances).