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CH2: Observational Learning


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observational learning and rule-governed behavior.
Behavior can be altered by indirect means, such as
an observer's behavior is altered as a result of socially interacting with or observing the behavior of a model.
In observational learning...
social learning, because in a social setting we can eliminate trial and error, and acquire knowledge, skills, and beliefs by observing others.
Observational learning is often referred to as...
contagious behavior and stimulus enhancement.
Two simple forms of observational influence are...
instinctive or reflexive behavior triggered by the same behavior in another being.
Contagious behavior includes...
fear-responses, social interaction and bonding behaviors, and orienting responses.
Examples of contagious behaviors include:
adaptive/survival mechanisms and include fleeing.
Fear-responses are contagious as...
are contagious as an effort to fit in.
Social interaction and bonding behaviors...
are contagious as an adaptive/survival mechanism, and includes following someone's gaze.
Orienting responses...
the probability of a behavior is changed because an individual's attention is drawn to a particular item/location by the behavior of another individual.
Stimulus enhancement is...
increasing the probability of behaviors that have strong instinctive components (eating, drinking, mating)
Stimulus enhancement is particularly effective for...
First information must be acquired through attention, then learning can be acquired if conditions for acquisition are met.
When is a model's behavior operantly translated into learning by an observer?
the consequences of the model's behavior, whether the observer is reinforced for attended (observing) to the model, whether the observer is capable of understanding and duplicating the modeled behavior, and the personal characteristics of the model.
Acquisition (of observational learning) depends on:
whether the observer's performance of the behavior is reinforced or punished.
Translating acquired knowledge into performance in turn depends on...
have observed the model experience rewards and punishments, when we ourselves have experienced rewards or punishments for that behavior, and our own history of rewards and punishments for performing modeled behaviors.
Reinforcement and punishment work to modify behavior in modeling situations in three ways: we are more/less likely to perform a modeled behavior when we...
a verbal description of a contingency.
A rule is...
a behavior that is generated as the result of rules.
Rule-governed behavior is...
a rule that also includes information about how we should behave in a setting.
An instruction is...
allow us to learn about contingencies without having to directly experience those contingencies
Rules are tremendously adaptive in that they...
rule-governed behavior is often less efficient than behavior that has been shaped by actual contingencies and rule-governed behavior is sometimes surprisingly insensitive to contingencies for a particular set of circumstance.
The two main drawbacks of rules are: