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CH8: Other Punishment Principles and Self-Control


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respond on two or more independent schedules of reinforcement that are simultaneously available.
On a concurrent schedule of reinforcement, individuals...
the matching law, which predicts that the proportion of responses emitted on an alternative will match the proportion of reinforcers received on that alternative.
Choice behaviors for concurrent schedules of reinforcement often follow...
matching (law) results from the individual's tendency to shift behavior toward a higher value alternative.
According to Melioration Theory...
an individual's tendency to shift behaviors toward higher value alternatives can sometimes reduce the overall amount of reinforcement (aka 'taking the easy way out').
Melioration theory would assume that...
long-term habituation to that alternative, so that it is no longer enjoyable (too much of something good can reduce how much you want that thing).
Overindulgence in a highly reinforcing alternative (melioration theory) can result in...
overly attracted to immediate reinforcers as opposed to delayed reinforcers.
Melioration also results in a tendency to be...
a choice between conflicting outcomes.
Self-control is...
temporal, in that immediate outcomes are relatively powerful whereas delayed outcomes are relatively weak and less certain.
One distinction of conflicting outcomes is...
choosing a larger, later reward over a smaller, sooner reward.
Delay of gratification is...
making a commitment to the larger reward at an early point in time before the shorter reward becomes imminent.
A means for facilitating self-control is by...
emitting a controlling response.
Skinner believes that self-control is facilitated by...
where you manipulate the environment to prevent the occurrence of some problem behavior.
Physical restraint is...
physical restraint, self-deprivation or self-satiation, alternative behaviors, and self-reinforcement or self-punishment.
Controlling responses (that facilitate self-control) are:
self-adherence.
A key to facilitating self-control is...
based on the assumption that the delay function for a reward is deeply scalloped so that its value increases sharply after it becomes imminent.
The Ainslie-Rachlin Model of self-control is...
the larger reward is preferred.
When choosing between smaller, sooner rewards and larger, later rewards, when both are far away...
its value rises.
When choosing between smaller, sooner rewards and larger, later rewards, when the smaller reward is imminent...
delay function for the longer, larger reward so that its value remains fairly high even during long delays.
Another means for facilitating self-control is flattening the...
biological differences between species and differences within a species.
Factors that may affect the delay function include:
the use of language to represent distant events, which support the delay function in humans.
A key biological difference between species that affects the delay function is...
age, impulsivity, experience in responding to delayed rewards, presence of other sources of reinforcement, and attainment of subgoals relating to the longer, larger reward.
Differences within a species includes:
each individual choice on a self-control task has only a small but cumulative effect on out likelihood of obtaining the desired long-term outcome.
According to the Small-but-Cumulative Model...
people are tempted to make an exception to a self-control program insofar as each individual temptation has only a minor impact on their long-term goal.
The Small-but-Cumulative model is largely why...
the collapse of the program, which is why there are relapse prevention programs to cope with the possibility of occasional lapses.
Repeated violation of a self-control programs (small-but-cumulative model) can result in...