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CH4: Practical Applications of Classical Condition


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understanding and treating phobias, modifying or eliminating problem behaviors, influencing physiological functioning.
Understanding the principles of classical conditioning can be useful across a variety of applications:
fears and anxieties.
Classical conditioning can be involved in the development of...
adaptive as it motivates individuals to avoid potentially dangerous situations.
In many cases the process of classically conditioning fears is...
an individual overgeneralizes a generally safe or neutral stimulus as dangerous; extreme, irrational fear response known as phobias.
The process of classically conditioning fears can be maladaptive if...
observational learning, temperament, preparedness, history of control, incubation, unconditioned stimulus revaluation, and selective sensitization.
Researchers have suggested additional variables that may be involved in the development of phobias:
observing fearful reactions in others.
Observational learning is...
an individual's base level of emotionality and reactivity to stimulation; influences how easily a particular person can acquire a phobia.
Temperament is...
a predisposition within a species to learn certain kinds of associations more easily than others; how easily a particular phobia can be acquired.
Preparedness refers to...
the history an individual has of being able to control important events in one's environment.
History of control refers to...
the strengthening of a conditioned fear response as a result of brief experiences to the aversive conditioned stimulus; simply worrying about a fear can result in incubation.
Incubation refers to...
exposure to an unconditioned stimulus of different intensity.
Unconditioned stimulus revaluation can result from...
an increase in one's reactivity to a potentially fearful stimulus following exposure to an unrelated stressful event.
Selective sensitization is...
counter-conditioning and systematic desensitization.
Phobias can be modified by:
based on a counter-conditioning procedure where a conditioned stimulus that elicits one type of response is associated with a stimulus that elicits a different response.
Systematic desensitization is...
the process of reciprocal inhibition in which one type of response can inhibit the occurrence of another, incompatible response.
Counter-conditioning works through...
training in relaxation techniques, creation of a hierarchy of imaginary scenes that elicit progressively more intense levels of fear, and pairing each item in the hierarchy with relaxation.
The three components of systematic desensitization are:
in vivo desensitization where imaginary scenes are replaced with a hierarchy of real life encounters with the feared stimulus.
One type of systematic desensitization is...
flooding.
Another treatment for phobias is...
prolonged exposure to a feared stimulus thus allowing the conditioned fear response to be extinguished.
Flooding involves....
it's more effective for specific phobias than generalized anxiety; it's more successful when skill deficits are not causing the anxiety; the effectiveness does not depend on the intensity, the duration, or whether the anxiety was acquired suddenly or gradually; and it may not be as effective in treating anxities that could have an underlying survival component.
Research has shown that systematic desensitization can be effective for nearly any phobia, with the following considerations:
aversion therapy.
Problem behaviors can be eliminated through...
the attempted reduction of the attractiveness of a desires event by associating it with an aversive stimulus.
Aversion therapy is...
aversion therapy is carried out with the use of imaginal stimuli.
In covert sensitization...
neutral stimuli that have been associated with an allergy-inducing substance can then elicit a conditioned allergic response later; stimuli that have been associated with drugs that alter the immune or endocrine systems also alter the functioning of those systems; classical conditioning is involved in the creation of the placebo effect.
Classical conditioning can have health/medical implications: