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tort law
area of civil law which aims to compensate people for harms
act
something we do
actionable per se
claimant does not have to show actual damages
allegation of negligence
a statement that someone committed a negligence but has not been proved
affirm
state publicly that something is true
anguish
pain
anticipate
predict
assault
make sb. afraid that you will hurt them
award damages
court's action that gives monetary compensation to the claimant
battery
hurt sb. in a physical way
chain of causation
relationship between conduct and result (breach of duty and harm)
commit a tort
breach a duty of care
compensate
pay someone money because they have suffered injury
compensation
what a victim is awarded by court from the tortfeasor
conduct
behaviour
contributory negligence
claimant is partly to blame for the damage suffered
damage
physical harm that is done to something or to a part of someone's body
damages
monetary compensation
defamation
false statement about someone intended to damage his/her reputation
deter
stop someone from doing something
deterrent
something that makes someone less likely to do something
due care
conduct that a reasonable man or woman will exercise in a particular situation in looking out for the safety of others
duty of care
duty to make sure that your conduct does not harm anyone
emotional distress
mental distress and anxiety
entitled to
having the right to
establish a precedent
to create a new precedent
false imprisonment
depriving sb. of personal liberty without that person's permission
find in favour of
to decide that one party is not responsible or guilty
foreseeable
predictable
incur a loss
to lose money
intention
motif
libel
defamation in writing
leaflet
a piece of paper advertising something or giving information on a particular subject
legal action under the law of tort
to start legal action under the law of tort
liable (for)
legally responsible
liability
legal responsibility
mass tort
a civil action involving a number of claimants
mischief
harm
misconduct
bad behaviour
negligence
carelessness
negligent
careless
nuisance
interfering with sb's enjoyment of his/her land
objective
not influenced by your own feelings
omission
failure to act
omit
not do something
overlap
two things have some parts in common
owe a duty of care
have a duty of care
pain and suffering
physical and emotional stress caused by an injury
per se
by itself
permanent
existing for a long time
principle of law
rule of law
product liability
the producer's liability for their products
proof of damage
evidence of actual harm
redress
compensation
remedy
redress
remote
indirect
remote damage
harm that is not a direct result of the breach
revenue
income
reverse the verdict
to change the verdict; judgement
slander
oral type of defamation
strict liability
defendant is liable even though harm happened without intention or negligence
subjective
influenced by personal opinion
sustained
continuing for a long time
tort
civil wrong
trespass to the person
harm sb. in a physical way
trespass to land
entering sb's land without their permission
vicarious liability
a responsibility that one person might have for another person's acts or omissions
victim
claimant in tort
waive
give up your right
neighbour test
checking if the parties were proximate and the defendant owed a duty of care to the claimant
assumption of risk
claimant formally accepts risk of harm
wrong
harm
seek relief in court
demand compensation in court
settle out of court
resolve a conflict without going to court
tortfeasor
person committing a tort
tortious liability
person's liability for harm cuased due to a breach of duty of care
frivolous tort
filed in spite of the fact that both the claimant and his lawyer knew that it had no grounds
head of tort
category of tort
impose a duty of care
force a duty on people
foreseeability
predictability
bring an action in tort
make a claim based upon the law of tort
breach of duty
not to fulfil a duty
action on the grounds of nuisance
action based upon nuisance
reasonable person
ordinary person who normally exercises duty of care
prudent person
reasonable person
occupier
person or company residing in or using a property as its owner or tenant, or (illegally) as a squatter.
occupier's liability
duty of care of the owner of premises to visitors