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Fallacies of Ambiguity


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Equivocation
When there is a shift in the meaning of a word or phrase in the course of an argument
Amphiboly
When an ambiguous statement serves as a premise with the interpretation that makes it true, and a conclusion is drawn from it on an interpretation that makes the premises false
Accent
When a premise relies for its apparent meaning on one possible emphasis, but a conclusion is drawn from it that relies on the meaning of the same word accented differently
Composition
An argument that improperly concludes that a property true of part of a whole applies to the whole, or a property true of a member of a class applies to the whole class
Division
An argument that illegitimately claims that a term that is true of a whole is true of a part, or a term that is true of a class of things is true of a member of that class