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expansion
when something increases in size, range, amount etc SYN growth
livestock
animals such as cows and sheep that are kept on a farm → cattle
cultivation
the preparation and use of land for growing crops
self-sufficient
able to provide all the things you need without help from other people
commodity
a product that is bought and sold
spectacular
very impressive
prior
existing or arranged before something else or before the present situation SYN previous
settler
someone who goes to live in a country or area where not many people like them have lived before, and that is a long way from any towns or cities
draw away
to move ahead (as of an opponent in a race)
characteristic
a quality or feature of something or someone that is typical of them and easy to recognize
remarkable
unusual or surprising and therefore deserving attention or praise
ancestor
1 a member of your family who lived a long time ago → descendant
uproot
to make someone leave their home for a new place, especially when this is difficult or upsetting
tie
to fasten things together or hold them in a particular position using a piece of string, rope etc
bind
to tie someone so that they cannot move or escape
stratification
when society is divided into separate social classes
occupation
a job or profession
rigid
stiff and not moving or bending OPP flexible
inherit
to receive money, property etc from someone after they have died
duty
something that you have to do because it is morally or legally right SYN obligation
inveterate
having a particular habit, activity, or interest that is long-established and unlikely to change
ambitious
determined to be successful, rich, powerful etc
trait
formal a particular quality in someone’s character
nomad
a member of a tribe that travels from place to place instead of living in one place all the time, usually in order to find grass for their animals
daring
involving a lot of risk or danger, or brave enough to do risky things
fringe
= border
settlement
a group of houses and buildings where people live, especially in a place where few people have lived before // an official agreement or decision that ends an argument, a court case, or a fight, or the action of making an agreement
alluvial
made of soil left by rivers, lakes, floods etc
loam
good quality soil consisting of sand, clay, and decayed plants
desire
a strong hope or wish
fecund
formal able to produce many children, young animals, or crops SYN fertile
prairie
a wide open area of fairly flat land in North America which is covered in grass or wheat, grassland, meadow, plain
sterile
cannot produce babies SYN infertile
plague
to cause pain, suffering, or trouble to someone, especially for a long period of time
deplete
to reduce the amount of something that is present or available
proliferation
= growth
turnpike
a large road for fast traffic that drivers have to pay to use
surplus
an amount of something that is more than what is needed or used SYN excess
navigable
a river, lake etc that is deep and wide enough for ships to travel on
stimulate
to encourage or help an activity to begin or develop further OPP suppress
presage
formal to be a sign that something is going to happen, especially something bad
specialization
an activity or subject that you know a lot about
supersede
= replace
craft
a job or activity in which you make things with your hands, and that you usually need skill to do
freight
goods that are carried by ship, train, or aircraft, and the system of moving these goods
propel
to move, drive, or push something forward
enormous
very big in size or in amount SYN huge
span
to include all of a particular space or area
divert
= shift
retreat
if an area of water, snow, or land gradually gets smaller
subtle
not easy to notice or understand unless you pay careful attention OPP obvious
momentous
= very important
sparse
existing only in small amounts
numerous
many, various, abundant
pollen
a fine powder produced by flowers, which is carried by the wind or by insects to other flowers of the same type, making them produce seeds
favorable
you think that someone or something is good or that you agree with them
sedentary
formal spending a lot of time sitting down, and not moving or exercising very much
exploit
= utilize, make use of
intensive
involving a lot of activity, effort, or careful attention in a short period of time
slope
an area of steep ground covered with snow that people ski down
cereal
a plant grown to produce grain, for example wheat, rice etc
exotic
something that is exotic seems unusual and interesting because it is related to a foreign country – use this to show approval
inhabit
SYN live
obtain
to get something that you want, especially through your own effort, skill, or work SYN get
cramped
= confined
pit
a hole in the ground, especially one made by digging
dwelling
a house, apartment etc where people live
reed
گیاه نی
damp
slightly wet, often in an unpleasant way
steppe
a large area of land without trees, especially in Russia, Asia, and eastern Europe
subsist
to stay alive when you only have small amounts of food or money SYN survive
sizable
fairly large
permanent
continuing to exist for a long time or for all the time in the future OPP temporary
clan
a large group of families who often share the same name
descent
formal the process of going down OPP ascent // 2 [uncountable] your family origins, especially your nationality or relationship to someone important who lived a long time ago
botanist
someone whose job is to make scientific studies of wild plants
shift
= change
oak
بلوط
vicinity
the area near or surrounding a particular place
drought
a long period of dry weather when there is not enough water for plants and animals to live
severe
very bad or very serious
abandon
to leave someone, especially someone you are responsible
disperse
spreads in different directions over a wide area
mound
a pile of earth or stones that looks like a small hill
herd
a group of animals of one kind that live and feed together
acre
هکتار
close-knit
everyone knows each other well and gives each other support when they need it
rectangular
having the shape of a rectangle
telltale signs
signs etc that clearly show something has happened or exists, often something that is a secret
abrasion
the process of rubbing a surface very hard so that it becomes damaged or disappears
tether
a rope or chain that an animal is tied to so that it can only move around within a limited area
dwell
live in
preserve
to save something or someone from being harmed or destroyed
scavenger
لاشخور
decay
to be slowly destroyed by a natural chemical process, or to make something do this
agency
= force
preservation
when something is kept in its original state or in good condition
the odds
how likely it is that something will happen
spine
the row of bones down the centre of your back that supports your body and protects your spinal cord SYN backbone
terrestrial
= land
immerse
to put someone or something deep into a liquid so that they are completely covered
tar
a black substance, thick and sticky when hot but hard when cold, used especially for making road surfaces
lava
hot liquid rock that flows from a volcano, or this rock when it has become solid
engulf
to completely surround or cover something
petrify
to convert into stone or a stony substance.
clam
a shellfish you can eat that has a shell in two parts that open up
imply
to suggest that something is true, without saying this directly
ordinary
average, common, or usual, not different or special
consume
formal to eat or drink something
snail
a small soft creature that moves very slowly and has a hard shell on its back
durable
continuing for a long time SYN long-lasting
dissolution
the process by which something gradually becomes weaker and disappears
undergo
if a change, an unpleasant experience etc, happens to you or is done to you
enhance
= improve, increase
marrow
the soft fatty substance in the hollow centre of bones
cavity
formal a hole or space inside something
precipitate
formal to make something serious happen suddenly or more quickly than was expected
pore
one of the small holes in your skin that liquid, especially sweat, can pass through, or a similar hole in the surface of a plant
simultaneous
things that happen at exactly the same time
substance
a particular type of solid, liquid, or gas
marvelous
extremely good, enjoyable, impressive etc SYN wonderful
precise
= exact
ornamentation
decoration on an object that makes it look attractive
delicate
= fragile
volatile
a volatile situation is likely to change suddenly and without warning OPP stable
constituent
one of the substances or things that combine to form something
silhouette
a dark image, shadow, or shape that you see against a light background
possession
formal something that you own it, or you have obtained it from somewhere
prospect
= possibility
occasionally
sometimes, but not regularly and not often
invertebrate
a living creature that does not have a backbone
examination
test of knowledge, especially an important one SYN exam
reveal
to make known something that was previously secret or unknown OPP conceal
digestive
connected with the process of digestion
viscera
the large organs inside your body, such as your heart, lungs, and stomach
ooze
liquid flows from it very slowly
seep
to flow slowly through small holes or spaces
deprivation
the lack of something that you need in order to be healthy, comfortable, or happy
iridescent
showing colours that seem to change in different lights
diminish
reduce, shrink
lethal
causing death, or able to cause death → fatal
fur
hair on animal
afar
great distance away