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Level 5

Unit 5 Processes


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roughly
very close to (almost)
greenhouse gas
a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation
pure iron
a simple iron without anything
iron ore
a native compound of iron from which the metal may be profitably extracted
furnace
an enclosed structure in which material can be heated to very high temperatures
blast furnace
a smelting furnace in the form of a tower into which a blast of hot compressed air can be introduced from below
emerge
to appear by coming out of something or out from behind something
brittle
hard but liable to break or shatter easily
tough
(substance or object) strong enough to withstand adverse conditions or rough or careless handling
ductile steel
steel that has the ability to be hammered thin or stretched into wire without breaking
molten iron
iron that has been heated to a very high temperature and has become a hot thick liquid
fishbone diagram
a simplified schematic drawing showing the appearance, structure, or workings of something
steel furnace
a type of metallurgical furnace used for making steel
high-carbon steel
steels that can be tempered to great hardness; used for special purposes like (non-industrial-purpose) knives, axles or punches
scrap
consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, and surplus materials
maintenance
the service of any technical device
manpower
the number of people working or available for work or service
supervision
the action, process of a critical watching and directing (as of activities or a course of action)
leak
accidentally lose or admit contents, especially liquid or gas, through a hole or crack
machinery
a particular machine system or set of machines
inadequate
lacking the quality or quantity required; insufficient for a purpose
pump
a mechanical device using suction or pressure to raise or move liquids, compress gases, or force air into inflatable objects
green steelmaking
a low-emission integrated steelmaking process
electrolyte
a liquid or gel which contains ions and can be decomposed by electrolysis
iron bar
wrought iron in the form of bars
combustion
the process of burning something
rapid
happening in a short time or at a fast pace
by-product
an incidental or secondary product made in the manufacture or synthesis of something else
boiler room
a room in a building (typically in the basement) or a compartment in a ship containing a boiler and related heating or steam-generating equipment
enforce
compel observance of or compliance with (a law, rule, or obligation)
supervisor
a person who manages a person or an activity
widespread
found or distributed over a large area or number of people
investigate
to try to discover all the facts about something (a crime or accident)
phosphorus
the chemical element of atomic number 15 (glows in the dark)
impurity
the fact that a substance is dirty or lower in quality because it is mixed with another substance, or something that causes this
monoxide
an oxide containing one atom of oxygen in its molecule or empirical formula
charge
the property of matter that is responsible for electrical phenomena, existing in a positive or negative form
presence
the fact of being in a place
gather
to bring together
high-purity
a very low percentage of contamination and adulteration
conventional
based on or in accordance with what is generally done or believed
oxygen lance
a tube for conveying oxygen, used in various thermal cutting or steelmaking operations
coolant
a fluid used to cool a system or to transfer heat from one part of it to another
inert gases
any of the unreactive gaseous elements
movable seal
a gasket which is capable of being moved
tap hole
a hole in a blast furnace
converter vessel
a box in which molten metal is refined, using a blast of air or oxygen
pipe
a hollow cylinder made of metal, wood, or other material, used for the conveyance of water, gas, steam, petroleum
caption
a heading or title, as of a chapter, article, or page
lance
a metal pipe supplying a jet of oxygen to a furnace or to make a very hot flame for cutting
flux
a chemical used to increase the fluidity of refining slags in order to promote the rate of chemical reaction
principal material
main raw material
molten
metal or rock in a liquid state because of great heat
supervise
to oversee (a process, work, workers, etc.) during execution or performance; superintend
malleable
able to revert to original size and shape after being stretched, squeezed, or twisted
compress
to press together
toughen
make or become stronger or more resilient
brittle
having hardness and rigidity but little tensile strength
differ
to be unlike, dissimilar, or distinct in nature or qualities
cast iron
an alloy of iron, carbon, and other elements, cast as a soft and strong, or as a hard and brittle
ore
a metal-bearing mineral or rock, or a native metal, that can be mined at a profit
pellets
small balls of iron ore used in the production of steel
sinter plant
a place where iron ore fines are agglomerated with other raw materials at high temperatures
aluminum
a silver-white metallic element which is light in weight and ductile
refine
to bring to a fine or a pure state
bauxite
the principal ore of aluminum
alumina
the natural or synthetic oxide of aluminum
crusher
a machine designed to crush rocks
mine
an excavation made in the earth for the purpose of extracting ores or coal
digester
an apparatus in which substances are softened or disintegrated by moisture or heat
filter
any device containing such a porous substance for separating suspensions from fluids
precipitator
a device to separate a substance in solid form from a solution
rotary furnace
an enclosed chamber in which heat is produced to generate steam or smelt ores
dried-out
one that has become or been made completely dry
powder
any solid substance reduced to a state of loose particles by crushing
pulverised
to reduce to dust or powder by pounding or grinding
crushed
to press or squeeze with a force that destroys or deforms
extract
to pull or draw out usually with special effort or force
liquid
composed of molecules that move freely among themselves but do not tend to separate like those of gases
calcinated
to convert into calx by heating or burning
dissolved
to make a solution of by mixing with a liquid
sodium
a soft and silver white element that oxidizes rapidly in moist air
hydroxide
a chemical compound containing the hydroxyl group
solution
molecular mixture of two or more substances
conveyor belt
an endless belt or chain for carrying materials or objects short distances
grind
to instruct in elements or first principles
pressurised
brought to and maintained at an atmospheric pressure higher than that of the surroundings
aluminium oxide
a white or colourless insoluble powder occurring naturally as corundum and used in the production of aluminum and its compounds
mixture
an aggregate of two or more substances that are not chemically united and that exist in no fixed proportion to each other
sink
to descend gradually to a lower level
precipitation process
the precipitating of a substance from a solution
siphon off
to convey through a siphon
recycle
to treat or process so as to make suitable for reuse
composed
to make or form by combining things
smelt
to fuse or melt in order to separate the metal contained
direct current
an electric current of constant direction that have a magnitude that does not vary or varies only slightly
hopper
a funnel-shaped chamber or reservoir from which solid materials can be discharged under gravity into a receptacle below
pot
a container of earthenware or metal usually round and deep and having a handle or handles and often a lid
molten
liquefied by heat
layer
a thickness of some material laid on or spread over a surface
bar
an oblong piece of any solid material
shell
any of various objects resembling covering in shape or in being more or less concave or hollow
ladle
a refractory-lined container for transferring molten metal
crust
any more or less hard external covering or coating
tap
a cylindrical stick for closing an opening through which liquid is drawn
trapped
unable to move or escape as a result of obstruction
remote
operating or controlled from a distance
possibility
the state or fact of being possible
relief
ease or deliverance through the removal of pain or distress
schedule
a plan of procedure
likelihood
the state of being likely or probable
spill
to cause or allow to run or fall from a container
assessment
an official valuation of property for the purpose of levying a tax
offshore
at a distance from the shore
failure
an act or instance of failing or proving unsuccessful
blowout preventer
a specialized valve or similar mechanical device used to seal and control oil and gas wells to prevent blowout
reclaim
to claim or demand the return or restoration of, as a right
artificial
a replacement for something natural
dig
to break up or remove earth with a shovel or bulldozer
piers
a structure built on posts extending from land out over water
contractor
a person who contracts to furnish supplies or perform work at a certain price or rate
cryolite
sodium aluminum fluoride which is used as a flux in the electrolytic production of aluminum
rectangle
a parallelogram having four right angles
consist
to be made up or composed
corrosion
the act or process of corroding
conduct
to serve as a channel or medium for heat or electricity
casting house
refractory used for the transfer of steel from furnace to ingot