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Free will and Determinism


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Benedict Spinoza
People are aware of their free action.
A. J. Ayer
argues that actions are either determined or not
Hard Determinism
the teaching that denies that humanity has freewill and believes that all actions have a prior cause. it removes responsibility for actions
Ted Honderich
"All our choices, decisions, intentions, other moral events & our actions are no more than effects of other equally necessiated events."
Music
"No one can ever come up with an original song" ie- ice ice baby and under pressure essentially the same song
Psychological determinists
believe that they have made the same progress in isolating psychological abnormalities in the brain that may cause people to murder without having made a choice to do so
Warrior Gene
MAOA
The view that all choices are determined by other events or actions prior to choice
hard determinism
Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
said that all phyiscal beings and things are governed by a series of unchangeable natural laws, such as gravity or motion
John Hospers
claims there is always something within us that urges us to make a choice that we believe was a result of freewill
Jehova Witnesses
Believe that there are 144,000 of them that are elected to go to heaven - predestination theory found in Revelations
The Fall
Biblical evidence of free will
Elie Wiessel
it was his choice to turn away from God. Although it could be said that the faite of the Jews was deteremined; not by them
Clarence Darrow
argued for determinism in court cases to reduce sentences from hanging to imprisonment
Causal Determination
we are causally determined both internally and externally
Hard determinsm is incompatablist because
it contradicts the idea of freewill
every event is determined by the preceding chain of causes
if x has happened then y must happen
William Jamed advocated
Soft Determinism
Soft determinists
deny that prior determination of our actions negates freedom
Saint Augustine
determined outcomes may still be guided by choice or will
External causation
Ivan Pavlov Classical conditioning, Skinner reinforcement theory
Internal Causation
Genetics - obesity gene
John Locke
analogy of man locked in a room
Milgrams study
65% of people delivered the final 450 lethal volt despite witnessing the extreme pain of their victim
Freewill is just an illusion
"people think that they are free that is just an illusion"
Pelaguis believed
that humans could attaiin moral perfection through their own freechoice
Plato
"your destiny shall not be alloted to you, but you shall choose for yourselves"
Liberty of spontaneity
There are limits on a persons freedom as their nature or nurture makes certain choices easier or harder to make but they are still free to chose
Liberty of indifference
when a person is not bound by their freedom such as heredity, upbringing and society. It is real freedom