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Language and Situation


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Face
Our self-image
Positive Face
The part of us that desires to be appreciated
Negative Face
the part of us that desires to be ourselves without intrusion
Face Wants
The rules that we expect to be abided by to respect our face
Face-threatening acts
Acts that threaten our personal image
Face-Saving acts
Acts that repair or mitigate things that may threaten our face
Implicature
Implying a question
Mitigating devices
words that lessen demands e.g. modality
off record
asking for things without actually asking
on record
asking for things
bald on record
using imperatives to ask for things
Downward convergence
Adjusting speech to fit in with a lower class
Upward convergence
Adjusting speech to fit in with a higher class
Mutual convergence
When both participants converge towards eachother
CRAFT
Acronym for basic principles of politeness
Conventions, Relationship, Address, Formality, Turntaking
CRAFT
Face-work
Face related behaviours
Social Stratification
Defining social groups based on class
Lakoff (1975)
Found that women defer speech more to men
Cooperative Principle
Another name for Grice's Maxims
Flouting
Disobeying one of Grice's Maxims
Goffman (1955)
Created the concept of Face-work
Clarke-Stewart (1973)
Found that children whose mothers speak to them have a larger vocabulary
Lakoff (1973)
Created the Politeness Principle
The maxims of the politeness principle
Don't impose, give options, give compliments
Fishman (1990)
Found that men talk more in mixed-gender conversations
Capital Punishment Experiment
Gile's experiment that found that regional accents are more persuasive
The Sapir-Wharf Hypothesis
The heavily criticised theory of linguistic determinism
Kay and Kemption (1984)
Found that English speakers could differentiate between blue and green better than speakers of tarahumara, which only has one word for the two