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Education- Part 4


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Ghevarughese
Argues schools are biased towards europe e.g. Greeks developed algebra. However they dismiss the knowledge from Africa, Arabia and India this can leave ethnic minorities feeling frustrated
Harker
Documented the link between poor quality housing and on educational achievement. Children from poor housing are more likey to also have higher rates of stress and aggression
Close Knit Asians (driver and ballard)
Driver and Ballard Argued that the reason some Asians attain high grades is because their families are close knit extended family
Pryce
argues a high rate of matriarchal single families in Black families which may explain why there is underachievement in BLACK BOYS and why BLACK GIRLS do better
Linguistic Deprivation
Poorer and minority groups tend to had linguistic deprivation which prevents them from exceeding in academia even if they are intelligent
Fatalism
Some social classes are feel its impossible to improve their social class and therefore hold LOW IMPORTANCE ON EDUCATION
Deferring Gratification
Putting off rewards in order to attain greater one,skin the future e.g. Middle classes take on a masters degree rather than getting a retail job
Immediate Gratification
Taking rewards at the earliest opportunity e.g. Lower classes leaving school to do a part time job
New Rights on Minorities
argue Ethinic minorities underachieve because they cling to their ancestral historic roots rather than embrace british culture which would help improve their attainment e.g. English literature and museums
Restricted Code (Bernstein)
Bernstein characterised this code as SIMPLE and LIMITED VOCAB and used in casual settings
Elaborated Code (Bernstein)
Bernstein characterised this code as SOPHISTICATED and any listening can drop in and understand the context. This code tends to be used in formal settings
Bernstein
Argues working classes only use restricted code which DISADVANTAGES them because the education system heavily relies on the use of elaborated code
EAL (English as an additional language)
Where minorities speak English as a second language they may also struggle to use ELABORATED CODE, however the successes of Indian migrants do prove this theory is limited
Labov
interviewed working class black boys from Harlem. He discovered when they conversed IN SLANG the topics discussed were actually VERY SOPHISTICATED.
Bernstein criticism
Labovs study criticises Bernstein as it indicates that when working classes try to use elaborated code it actually puts them at a DISADVANTAGE and in fact speaking restricted allowed them to share intellect