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Module VII Terms - Nervous System


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cranial nerves
12 nerves
spinal nerves
31 nerve pairs
astrocyte
glial cells of CNS,provides nutrients to the nervous tissue, maintains extracellular ion balance, repairs brain and spinal cord following traumatic injuries.
oligodendrocyte
myelin in CNS
microglia
CNS, glial cells, macrophages
neurilemma
outer layer of cytoplasm of schwann cells
schwann cells
myelin in PNS
dura mater
outer brain covering
pia mater
inner most membrane covering brain
arachnoid
weblike space containing CSF, between dura and pia mater
meninges
membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord
CN I
olfactory (sensory)
CN II
optic (sensory)
CN III
oculomotor (motor)
CN IV
trochlear (motor) - eye movement
CN V
trigeminal (motor and sensory) - tear glands, facial muscles, forehead, teeth, gums, lips, mouth, scalp
CN VI
abducens (motor) - controls lateral rectus muscle of eye
CN VII
facial nerve (motor and sensory) - taste, facial expressions
CN VIII
vestibulocochlear (sensory) - sound and equilibrium
CN IX
glossopharyngeal - pharynx, tonsils, tongue, carotid arteries, salivary glands
CN X
vagus (motor) - speech, swallowing, hear muscle, smooth muscle, glands
CN XI
accesssory (motor) - sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
CN XII
hypoglossal (motor) - tongue movement
ganglion
cluster of cell bodies of afferent nerves
neuroglia
maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
MRA
magnetic resonance angiogram
EEG
electroencephalogram, detect abnormalities in neurological conditions
polysomnography
recording of electrical and movement patterns during sleep
ependymal cells
CNS, glial cell, produce CSF
contusion
bruising of surface of brain
subdural hematoma
blood accumulates between dura and arachnoid
spina bifida
part of neural tube fails to develop or close properly, causing defects in the spinal cord and vertebrae
Tay Sach's disease
rare inherited disorder that progressively destroys nerve cells of CNS (enzyme deficiency)
Alzheimer's
progressive degenerative disease of brain neurons
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
degenerative disease of motor neurons
Huntington's Chorea
progressive neurological disease, uncontrollable jerking movements, loss of neural control
meningitis
bacterial or virus infection of meninges (bacterial especially fatal)
radiculitis
inflammation of spinal nerve roots
absence seizure
mild seizure, disorientation
agnosia
inability to receive and understand outside stimuli
aphasia
loss of speech
apraxia
inability to use familiar objects
ataxia
unsteady gait, loss of balance
Parkinson's
A disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement, often including tremors (lack of dopamine)
tonic-clonic seizure
spasmotic limb jerking convulsions, loss of consciousness
neuritis
inflammation of a nerve
palsy
paralysis (not plegia)
parasthesia
abnormal sensation (tingling/pins and needles)
TIA
short neurological event with recovery
glioma
tumor of neuroglia
meningioma
tumor of meninges
craniectomy
removal of part of the skull
basal ganglia
masses of gray matter in cranium