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Module XII Terms - Endocrine System


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endocrine glands
hormones secreted into bloodstream/systemic effects
pituitary
controls output of most endocrine organs (thyroid
adrenal medulla
secretes epinephrine and norpinephrine/fight or flight/stress reduction
adrenal cortex
secretes aldosterone, cortisol(hydrocortisone), and androgens
pancreas
glucagon/insulin secreted by islet cells/ short term blood glucose control
pineal gland
sleep cycle/melatonin/responds to signals from optic nerve
ovaries
produce estrogen and progesterone
testes
produces testosterone
thymus
secretes thymosin which stimulates production of immune (T and B) cell production/mediastinum
local tissue hormones
effect tissues in short range
prostaglandin
produced by tissues and have short range effects
HPO Axis
hypothalamus/pituitary/target organ
hypothalamus
monitors homeostasis/releases factors that control pituitary secretions
ADH and oxytocin
produced by hypothalamus stored in the posterior pituitary
adenohypophysis
anterior pituitary
neurohypophysis
posterior pituitary
anterior pituitary
releases ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, GH
posterior pituitary
stores and releases ADH and oxytocin
sella turcica
contains pituitary gland
exocrine glands
secrete hormones through through ducts that target a specific location
thyroid
releases T3 and T4/metabolic control
isthmus
divides two lobes of thyroid
Thyroxine
T4/most abundant
Triiodothyronin
T3/most potent
Calcitonin
calcium removed from blood and stored in bone/prevents hypercalcemia
basal metabolic rate
BMR/amount of energy expended while at rest
parathyroid hormone
increases blood calcium/affects muscle and nerve function
parathyroid
4 glands on posterior of thyroid
glucagon
hormone that breaks down glycogen to raise blood sugar
insulin
hormone that stores glycogen and fat
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic hormone/anterior pituitary/stimulates secretion of adrenal cortex hormones
ADH
antidiuretic hormone/posterior pituitary/increase water absorption
acromegaly
chronic hypersecretion of GH starting after puberty/ abnormal overgrowth of bones in hands, feet, and face
gigantism
hypersecretion of GH before puberty/proportional overgrowth of all tissues
dwarfism
hyposecretion of GH/proportional body structures
diabetes insipidus
hyposecretion of ADH(vasopressin)/causes polyuria, polydipsia
SIADH
Syndrome of Inapropriate Antidiuretic Hormone/ADH hypersecretion/water retention/HTN
goiter
enlargement of thyroid gland/caused by lack of iodine (needed to metabolize thyroid hormones) or low levels of thyroid hormones
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
autoimmune/goiter, sluggishness, weight gain, sensitivity to cold
Grave's disease
hypersecretion of thyroid hormones
thyrotoxicosis
high levels of thyroid hormones
myxedema
severe hypothyroidism
hypoparathyroidism
deficient PTH/hypocalcemia -> ams, spasms, tetany when severe
Cushing's syndrome
overactive adrenal glands/hypersecretion of cortisol/muscle fatigue, DM
Addison's disease'
hyposecretion of cortisol/fatigue, GI issues, weight loss, bronze skin color, dehydration, hyperkalemia
diabetic nephropathy
(glomerulosclerosis) kidney disease secondary to DM
diabetic neuropathy
loss of sensation in the extremities/ compounded by hyperglycemia
retinopathy
retinal blood vessel damage due to DM
adeno
gland
GH
growth hormone/stimulates muscle and bone growth
PTH
parathyroid hormone/increases blood calcium/secreted by parathyroid
aldosterone
adrenal medulla/regulates sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion on kidneys
cortisol
(hydrocortisone) fight or flight/blood glucose/reduces inflammatory response
islets of Langerhans
cells within pancreas that form insulin and glucagon
postprandial blood sugar
blood sugar taken ~2 hours after a meal to determine whether bs levels return to normal
glycosylated hemoglobin
(A1c) detects glucose on surface of RBCs after 2-3 months
pancreatitis
inflammation of pancreas/affects production of insulin
gestational diabetes
hyperglycemia around 24 weeks/pregnancy hormones cause insulin resistance
hypophysectomy
removal of pituitary gland