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Module IX Terms - Digestive System


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mucosa
innermost layer of GI tract, secretes mucus and enzymes
submucosa
connective tissue layer of GI tract
muscularis
layer of GI tract whose function is peristalsis
serosa
outer layer of GI tract
deglutition
swallowing
amylase
enzyme that breaks down starches
pepsin
enzyme that breaks down proteins, secreted by stomach
HCl
activates pepsinogen into pepsin
duodenum
chyme mixes with bile (fat digestion) and pancreatic juices (protein and starch digestion)
mesentary
2 layers of peritoneum/blood supply/absorption
hepatic artery
short blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, pylorus of the stomach, duodenum and pancreas
bile
alkaline fluid that aids digestion of fats/contains bilirubin
emulsification
breakdown fat globules into droplets (in duodenum)-> provide larger surface area for lipase
ano
anus
chole
bile
cholangi
bile vessel/duct
cholecyst
gallbladder
choledoch
common bile duct
hepato
liver
liver enzymes
AST/ALT/SGOT/SGPT
anorexia
loss of appetite
parotiditis
inflammation of parotid/mumps
aphagia
inability to swallow
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
esophageal varices
abnormal, enlarged veins/liver failure/upper GI bleeding
dyspepsia
difficult digestion/GERD
gastroenteritis
stomach and small intestine inflammation
hematemesis
vomiting blood
hyperbilirubinemia
elevated bilirubin level/jaundice
scleral icterus
yellowing of sclera
hepatomegaly
enlarged liver
cirrhosis
chronic liver disease/fibrosis/scarring of liver/inc portal pressure/alcohol, poor nutrition
hepatopathy
disease of liver (general term)
choledocholithiasis
stones in common bile duct
cholangitis
inflammation of bile duct
cholecystitis
inflammation of gallbladder
small bowel obstruction
mechanical blockage of small intestine
ileus
lack of peristalsis/obstruction
Inflammatory bowel disease
ulcerative colitis/Crohn's
irritable bowel syndrome
cramping/diarrhea-constipation
diverticulitis
inflammation of diverticula/LLQ pain
dysentery
bloody diarrhea/infectious/fever/shigella or salmonella
volvulus
intestinal twisting
intussusception
blockage from intestinal telescoping
ascites
fluid in abdominal cavity
polyposis
polyps in colon wall
hematochezia
bloody stool
melena
tarry feces associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage
steatorrhea
fat in stool
paracentesis
remove fluid of abdomen (abdominocentesis)
gastrectomy
excision of stomach
cathartic
medicine that causes the bowels to empty
antispasmotic
controls intestinal spasms/Bentyl, hycosamine
frenulum
connects tongue to floor of mouth
ankyloglossia
tongue attached to floor of mouth/congenital
eructation
burping
peptic ulcer
ulcer of mucous membrane of any part of the gastrointestinal system
hiatal hernia
protrusion of the stomach through an opening in the diaphragm
diverticulosis
small, bulging pouches develop in the digestive tract.
achalasia
failure of esophageal sphincter to relax during swallowing and allow food to pass easily from esophagus into stomach