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Grammar Definitions: Basics XIV


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Past Perfect Tense
Time of the verb which shows that an action had been completed in the past before another completed action. (The train had left when I arrived.)
Past Tense
Time of verb which shows that an action has been completed. (He went. We did go.)
Predicate Noun
Noun in the predicate which is the same in meaning as the subject and can sometimes be interchanged with it. (He is president. She became an actress.)
Present Tense
Time of verb which shows an action which is going on now. There are three forms of the verb- he says, he is saying, he does say.
Root
Basic part of a word without prefixes or suffixes which gives the main meaning of the word. ("cred"-believe; with prefix "in" and suffix "ible"-"in credible"-unbelievable)
Salutation
Part of a letter where the writer greets the reader. It usually is "Dear Sir," in formal letters or "Dear (name of a friend)," in informal letters.
Subject of the Infinitive
Noun or pronoun in the objective case which does the action indicated by the infinitive. ( I want him to go.)
Syllabication
Division into syllables. (En-glish)
Syllable
Smallest group of sounds consisting of a vowel sound and one or more consonant sounds which are pronounced as a unit. (con-so-nant)
Synonym
Word that is very similar in meaning to another word. (happy-glad)
Vowels
Letters representing the sounds a, e, i, o, u.
Demonstative Pronoun
(this, that, these, those) points out a person, place, thing or idea. ex. Those are beautiful flowers.
Direct Objects
Words that recieve the action of transitive verbs. What? Whom?
Three Kinds of Verbals
Gerunds, participles, and infinitives
Key Point:Verbal Phrase
Sweeping the sidewalk was the baker’s morning habit. Sweeping the sidewalk is a gerund phrase
Two kinds of clauses:
independent: I and dependent: D
Simple, compound, complex, compound-complex
The four clause structures: S, C, C-C
Simple Sentence:
a sentence with one independent clause (Structure: I)
Compound Sentence:
a sentence with two or more independent clauses (Structure: I +I or I + I + I etc.) etc.)
Complex Sentence:
: a sentence with an independent clause attached to a dependent clause (Structure: I + D or D + I or D + I + I )
Compound Complex Sentence:
a sentence with a compound structure and a complex structure (Structure: I + I + D or D + I + I )
to follow
Summary of Clause Punctuation:
I, cc I
Comma before coordinating conjunction in compound sentence
I; I
Semicolon between independent clauses if no coordinating conjunction
I D
No comma after independent clause in complex sentence