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Grammar Definitions: Basics XII

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The -ing form of a verb used as a noun (as a subject or an object).
Base form
English verbs have four principal parts
Have past simple and past participle end in -ed.
Past simple and past participle do not end in -ed.
A cliché is an expression that has lost its power although at one time it was probably clever.
Colloquial implies that expressions and phrases are not formal. Use formal language for academic writing.
Dashes are used to indicate a shift from one idea to another. Dashes can also be used to provide emphasis or clarity.
Ellipsis Points
Ellipsis is the name of the three dots used to show parts have been left out of a direct quotation.
An expletive has two meanings: it is either an expression that adds no meaning to the sentence or a vulgar expression.
A hyphen is used to connect two or more words in a sentence. Hyphenated words can act as modifiers or compound words that can stand alone.
Indirect Quotation
An indirect quotation restates the general meaning rather than the actual words of the speaker.
Jargon refers to expressions used only within certain disciplines or by certain people. Because formal writing is intended to be read by a wide audience, avoid jargon.
Main Clause
A main clause is another name for an independent clause or a phrase that can stand alone.
A modifier changes the meaning of another word. A modifier can be a verb or adverb, but a phrase can also be a modifier.
Nonrestrictive Clause
A nonrestrictive clause adds information about the antecedent but does not limit the antecedent.
Ordinal Number
Ordinal numbers tell position: first, second, third, and so on.
Parallelism means that words in a list are grammatically similar.
Parentheses are used to set off information that is not essential to the meaning of a sentence.
Redundancy refers to unnecessary repetition.
Relative Clause
A relative clause is the clause introduced by a relative pronoun. The relative pronouns are who(m), which, and that.
Restrictive Clause
A restrictive clause is one that limits its antecedent.
Split Infinitive
A split infinitive is formed when an infinitive verb forms with a word inserted between "to" and the verb.
A part of speech which helps describe a noun or pronoun by giving it a more exact meaning. ( big house; many friends; this pencil)
Active Verb
A verb is active when its subject is the doer of the action the verb is indicating. ( The batter hit the ball.)
Word is opposite in meaning to another word. (happy, sad)