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Level 314

Sentence Construction


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appositive phrase
Consists of an appositive [a group of words renaming or clarifying a noun] and its modifiers.
prepositional phrase
A group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun.
Participial Phrase
An adjective phrase used to modify a noun or pronoun -- VERB form.
Gerund Phrase
Begins with noun form of verb ending in -ing, plus any modifiers or complements.
Infinitive Phrase
Phrases that begin with an infinitive [to + simple form of the verb].
absolute phrase
Consists of a noun or a pronoun that is modified by a participle or a participial phrase.
independent clause
Expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. Has both a subject and a verb.
dependent clause
A clause that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence.
subordinate clause
A dependent clause.
Coordination
Joining independent clauses with one of the coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.
Subordination
Turning a clause into a dependent clause through the use of a Subordinating Conjunction [sometimes called a dependent word] or a Relative Pronoun.
Run-on Sentence
A sentence with at least two parts, either one of which can stand by itself [in other words, two independent clauses], but the two parts have been smooshed together instead of being properly connected.
Comma Splice
When two independent clauses are connected by only a comma.
Sentence Fragment
A 'sentence' that cannot stand by itself; it contains no independent clause.
Misplaced Modifier
A modifier that is not placed near the word it modifies.
Dangling Modifier
A word or phrase apparently modifying an unintended word because of its placement in a sentence.
Parallel Structure
The repetition of phrases, clauses, or sentences that have the same grammatical structure.
single word modifier
An adjective or adverb followed by a comma that modifies the object in a sentence.
appositive
A part of a sentence that defines or describes a noun [usually is more than two words], and must contain a noun; is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas; they usually begin with: the, a, an
subjects
the things doing the verbs [nouns]; must be in every sentence
subordinate clause
contains a subject and a verb but cannot stand on its own as a complete sentence [aka independent clause]; followed by a comma; common words are: after, although, as long as, because, before, if, si…
noun clause
a type of subordinate clause that functions as a noun; serve as subjects of the sentences that they begin; are not separated by commas; common words are: who, whoever, whomever, whose, whom, which, that, when, where, how
Who
subject of the sentence
whom
object of the sentence
relative clause
acts like an adjective; begins with a relative pronoun [who, whose, whom, which, that]; is separated with commas when it is not essential to the sentence