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Grammar Definitions: Basics II


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Defining relative clause
Gives info to define or identify, the person or thing we are talking about., Elephants who marry mice are unusual.
Direct Speech
What people actually say., Is put between " .", Bob said he "fell into a comma while studying grammar."
The three aspects
Perfect, Continuous, Simple (not really)
Present Continuous formation
S+be+V–ing, I am speaking.
Present Continuous Use
expresses actions happening around now or exactly now., expresses action happening in the future.
Past Continuous Formation
S+ was/were + V–ing, aux verb be, in simple past, I was watching TV.
Past Continuous Use
The past cont. expresses an action at a particular moment in the past. The action started before the moment but has not finished at the moment.
Past Continuous & Simple Past
The two are often used together., I was watching TV when you telephoned.
Present Perfect Construction
S+ HAVE + main verb, past participle, You have eaten
Present Perfect Continuous Formation
S + have/has + been + V–ing, She has been wearing glasses for years.
Past Perfect Continuous Formation
S + HAD + BEEN + V–ING, They had been losing a lot of money.
Past Perfect Continuous Use
expresses an event that took place before a particular point in the past.
The Simple Aspect
Not really an aspect, USES, To denote permanence, Juan lives in Spain, To denote fixed time reference, I went there yesterday, To denote completion, I bought it yesterday
Conditionals
We use conditionals to talk about a possible situation and its consequences.
Modals Definition
are auxliary verbs that function as an indicator of the speaker's judgement about the likelihood or desirability of the situation in question.
Pure Modals (9)
will, would, can , could, shall, should, may, might, must
Impure Modals (3)
ought to, have to, need to
Multi–word verb construction
made of a verb and one or more particles. , come to, put up with
Particle Definition
are words we use as adverbs and/or prepositions in other contexts. , away, back, off, on out
Type 1, no object, intransitive
doesn't take a D.O., Multi–word Verbs, The plane took off.
Type 2, object, transitive
needs a D.O., inseparable: can't go between the verb and the particle., Can you look after the children?, Multi–word Verbs
Type 4, Object(transitive)
has two particles , which are inseparable, You should look up to teachers., Multi–word Verbs
Active Voice
We mostly speak this., The boy broke the glass., The Subject is the indicator of the action.
Passive Voice
is mostly written., The glass was broken by the boy., The object of the verb is now the subject.
Simple sentence
A sentence that contains only one clause.