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Grammar Definitions: Basics


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comparative
comparative used to compare one element with another, whether person, object or activity. Specifically, there are comparative adjectives and comparative adverbs.
demonstrative
a demonstrative adjective or a pronoun is one which demonstrates or indicates the person or object referred to.
direct object
whether noun or pronoun, it is something or someone directly affected by the action or event. It is always used with a transitive verb.
idiomatic
an idiomatic expression is one which cannot normally be translated literally, for example "bite the dust".
imperative
the verb mood used to express orders, commands or instructions.
indicative (verb)
the verb mood we use most of the time. It has a full range of tenses, e.g. present, perfect, imperfect, future. (See also subjunctive.)
interrogative
a word which is used to ask a question or an indirect question
transitively
transitively and intransitively. (See transitive verbs.)
irregular (noun or verb)
irregular (noun or verb) one which does not follow one of the standard patterns of forms or endings.
negative
words or phrases that turn a positive statement or question into a negative one.
possessive
possessive adjectives and/or pronouns denote ownership: my watch
pronoun
a word which stands in for and/or refers to a noun. There are various categories of pronouns.
voice
verbs normally have two voices: active and passive. (See active and passive.)
subject
the person or thing that performs the action described by the verb. In the sentence 'Bob phoned me yesterday.', 'Bob' is the subject.
verb
a word that is used to say that someone does something or that something happens. For example the words 'arrive', 'make', 'be', and 'feel' are verbs.
object
in grammar, the person or thing that is affected by the action of the verb
complement
a part of a clause that usually follows the verb in English and adds more information about the subject or object
adverb
a word that describes or gives more information about a verb, adjective, adverb, or phrase
Compound Sentence
Connects independent clauses together but doesn't indicate their relationship
Coordinating conjunctions
FAN BOYS, FOR BUT, AND OR, NOR YET, SO
COMPLEX SENTENCE
Independent Clause, +, Dependant Clause
When the dependent clause comes first
,use a comma to separate the two clauses.
Use no comma
when the independent clause comes first.
Subordinating Conjunctions
after, although, as, because, before, even though, if, since, though, unless, until, when, whenever, whereas, wherever, while
Non–defining relative clause
usually between commas, The fish, which stank, was inedible., Gives information but is not essential.